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    Onderwijskrant Vlaanderen
    Vernieuwen: ja, maar in continuïteit!
    06-11-2014
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Onderwijs.M-(inclusie)decreet vereist breuk met klassieke schoolgrammatica & prestatieprincipe

    Volgens de Unesco vereist inclusief onderwijs de invoering van  inclusieve & flexibele curricula, een radicale breuk met de klassieke schoolgrammatica (Unesco-rapport: Policy Guidelines on Inclusion in Education, 2009). Maar Vlaams M-decreet wil inclusief onderwijs binnen klassieke schoolgrammatica, met behoud van eindtermen en klassieke leerplannen, ed. Dat kan uiteraard niet.

    Unesco: “According to the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2005, one way to move towards a relevant, balanced set of aims is to analyse the curriculum in terms of inclusion. An inclusive approach to curriculum policy recognizes that while each learner has multiple needs – even more so in situations of vulnerability and disadvantage – everyone should benefit from a commonly accepted basic level of quality education. This underlines the need for a common core curriculum that is relevant for the learner while being taught according to flexible methods.

    Accessible and fl exible curricula, textbooks and learning materials can serve as the key to creating schools for all. Many curricula expect all pupils to learn the same things, at the same time and by the same means and methods. But pupils are different and have different abilities and needs. It is important, therefore, that the curriculum be fl exible enough to provide possibilities for adjustment to individual needs and to stimulate teachers to seek solutions that can be matched with the needs, abilities and learning styles of each and every pupil.This is particularly important in the development and practice of learning activities for youth and adults. Some of the issues to consider in developing

    The concept of inclusive education questions a large part of the traditional school’s way of organizing and arranging teaching.   While   schools   must   have   general   or   common   goals   for   what   is   appropriate   and   desirable   for   pupils   to achieve in school, the demands related to different school subjects must be seen in the context of the individual pupil’s opportunities and needs.

    The   social   composition   of   schools   and   classrooms   is   changing   in   many   developing   countries   with   more   learners entering schools.     Multi-grade, multi-age and multi-ability classrooms are the reality in most places.  It is essential that alternate frameworks for imparting learning in varying contexts be analysed and better understood. Greater attention is also needed to investigate unique contexts and settings – schools that promote active learning and inclusion, provide multicultural settings, and function in refugee and emergency situations.”

    Inclusief onderwijs vereist volgens de Unesco  een totale omwenteling van het onderwijs : geen academische inhouden meer, geen gemeenschappelijke  leerplannen en eindtermen, geen jaarklassen meer,  kindgericht onderwijs, flexibele en andere werkvormen….

    Education through the inclusion lens : Centrale gedachten: *a shift from seeing the child as a problem to seeing the education system as the problem * A  highly  academic,  heavily   overloaded   curriculum   is  counterproductive   to   inclusive education.  *Veel meer informeel leren  *Flexible curriculum * Individual treatment  *Program reform should be centred upon learning needs and not be content lead/driven*Multi-grade, multi-age and multi-ability classrooms: geen jaarklassen meer  * Child-centred techniques * Doorgedreven differentiatie * Tongue instruction in the initial years of school…  Kortom : een totale omwenteling

    The education system has the full responsibility to ensure   the right to education .  It is equipped and ready  to handle diversity through:*Flexible teaching and learning methods  adapted to different needs and learning styles* Reorienting teacher education* Flexible curriculum responsive to diverse needs and not  overloaded with academic content*Welcoming of diversity *Involvement of parents and the community * Early identification and remediation  of children at risk of failure*Flexible teaching methods with innovative approaches to teaching aids,  and equipment as well as the use of ICTs * Responsive, child-friendly environments * Professional environment working deliberately  and actively to promote inclusion for all.

    *Creating an inclusive curriculum

    –   Curricular changes are necessary in order to support flexible learning and assessment.    –   A  highly  academic,  heavily  overloaded   curriculum   is  counterproductive to   inclusive education.–   Opportunities   for  informal  and  non-formal  education  should   be  developed   in   the curriculum.  –   Cohesive transition and articulation of the curriculum between early childhood, primary and secondary education are key factors in preventing drop-outs from level to level for ensuring retention. –   Multiple stakeholders should be encouraged to participate in curriculum design.

    An inclusive curriculum addresses the child’s cognitive, emotional, social and creative development. It is based on the four pillars of education for the twenty-fi rst century – learning to know, to do, to be and to live together It has an instrumental role to play in fostering tolerance and promoting human rights, and is a powerful tool for transcending cultural, religious, gender and other differences. An inclusive curriculum takes gender, cultural identity and language background into consideration. It involves breaking negative stereotypes not only in textbooks but also, and more importantly,   in  teacher’s  attitudes  and  expectations.  Multilingual  approaches   in education,   in  which  language   is recognized as an integral part of a student’s cultural identity, can act as a source of inclusion. Furthermore, mother tongue instruction in the initial years of school has a positive impact on learning outcomes.


    An  inclusive  approach  to  curriculum   policy  has  built-in  flexibility  and  can be adjusted   to   different  needs  so  that everyone benefi ts from a commonly accepted basic level of quality education. This ranges from varying the time that students devote to particular subjects, to giving teachers greater freedom to choose their working methods, and to allowing more time for guided classroom-based work.

    According to the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2005, one way to move towards a relevant, balanced set of aims is to analyse the curriculum in terms of inclusion. An inclusive approach to curriculum policy recognizes that while each learner has multiple needs – even more so in situations of vulnerability and disadvantage – everyone should benefit from a commonly accepted basic level of quality education. This underlines the need for a common core curriculum that is relevant for the learner while being taught according to flexible methods.

    Accessible and flexible curricula, textbooks and learning materials can serve as the key to creating schools for all. Many curricula expect all pupils to learn the same things, at the same time and by the same means and methods. But pupils are different and have different abilities and needs. It is important, therefore, that the curriculum be flexible enough to provide possibilities for adjustment to individual needs and to stimulate teachers to seek solutions that can be matched with the needs, abilities and learning styles of each and every pupil. This is particularly important in the development and practice of learning activities for youth and adults. Some of the issues to consider in developing

    Inclusieve leeromgeving: geen jaarklassen meer e.d.

    The  social composition  of  schools  and  classrooms  is changing  in  many  developing  countries   with more  learners entering schools.   Multi-grade, multi-age and multi-ability classrooms are the reality in most places.  It is essential that alternate frameworks for imparting learning in varying contexts be analysed and better understood. Greater attention is also needed to investigate unique contexts and settings – schools that promote active learning and inclusion, provide multicultural settings, and function in refugee and emergency situations.

    An inclusive school must offer possibilities and opportunities for a range of working methods and individual treatment to ensure that no child is excluded from companionship and participation in the school.  This implies the development of rights-based,  child-friendly  schools.  A rights-based   education  helps  children  realize  their  rights.  It is not only academically effective but also inclusive, healthy and protective of all children, gender-responsive, and encourages the participation of the learners themselves, their families and their communities. Support from the teachers and head teachers is essential, but support from the communities close to the school is also vital. All must be able and willing to ensure inclusion in the classroom and in learning for all children regardless of their differences. Thus, as noted earlier, seeing education through the inclusion lens implies a shift from seeing the child as a problem to seeing the education system as the problem that can be solved through inclusive approaches.

    Inclusive  education  of good  quality  is the  best  means  to overcome  future  learning   defi ciencies   among   youth   and adults. In today’s situation, however, special efforts must also be made to ensure appropriate education and training  programmes using different modalities for those youth and adults who have so far been deprived.


    When communities can hold teachers, administrators and government officials accountable for the inclusion of all children through formal institutional mechanisms, community members become more interested in school improvement and  more  willing  to  commit  their own  resources   to the  task.   This commitment  may  include  forming  partnerships  with  outside  contributors   such  as  the   private   sector.  According  to the World   Bank,  programmes  that  expand  the access of excluded groups to education have led to important shifts in mindsets among community members and government leaders regarding the contributions that these groups can make to society. In this way, change processes and empowerment go hand in hand to move towards inclusion for all learners.  It often involves developing alternative and non-formal dimensions of learning within a holistic education system in order to promote inclusion at all levels.

    Teachers and teacher education

      –   Teacher-education programmes, (both pre-service and in-service) should be reoriented and aligned to inclusive education approaches in order to give teachers the pedagogical capacities necessary to make diversity work in the classroom and in line with reformed curricula.

     –   Training of all education  professionals,  including  members  of  the  community,  are  essential to supporting an inclusive school.

     –   The creation of incentives renewing teachers’ social status and improving their living conditions     are  necessary  pre-conditions   to  professionalizing  the  role of teachers (e.g.   increasing  salaries,  providing  better   living quarters,   providing  home leaves,  increasing respect for their work, etc.)

    Teachers,  other  educators  and  non-teaching   support  staff  need  to  be  trained  and ready  to  assist  children,  youth and adults in their development and learning processes on a daily basis. Flexible teaching-learning methodologies necessitate shifting away from long theoretical, pre-service-based teacher training to continuous in-service development of teachers. It must be noted that all specific knowledge and competence cannot be given to the same individual.

    Several specializations are needed to cooperate with and support ordinary school staff. Moreover, national policies must address the status of teachers, their welfare and professional development. The severe teacher shortage and lack of trained teachers, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, and South and West Asia, has highly unfortunate consequences for the quality of learning.

    It is important to focus on creating an optimum learning environment so that all children can learn well and achieve their potential.   This involves learner-centred teaching methods and developing appropriate learning materials. ICTs and the use of new technology constitute a vital part of modern societies and should be used whenever possible. Activities that make schools more effective include: school readiness activities that ease the transition from home to school for grade one pupils, teacher training on child-centred techniques such as asking pupils questions, assigning the best teachers to the early grades to ensure a solid foundation in literacy and numeracy, providing remediation to the private sector.  Appropriate monitoring and evaluation mechanisms need to be put in place to evaluate the impact of inclusive education policies as regards the learner, the education system and wider societal development.

    Assessment approaches that promote a development towards inclusion need to be elaborated. The European Agency for Development in Special needs education has as one example developed outline indicators stressing that:  all pupils should be entitled to be involved in all assessment procedures as long as they are relevant and adapted to accommodate their needs   initial identification of pupils’ needs should not be the only mechanism for resource allocation   legal definitions and subsequent assessment procedures based on medical/de cit approaches lead to labelling and  categorisation that often reinforces segregation and separate approaches to provision curriculum, program reform should be centred upon learning needs and not be content lead/driven.

    Besluit

    Als we inclusief onderwijs invoeren volgens de visie van de Unesco dan moet het bestaande systeem de helling op, dan moet de eeuwenoude en  oerdegelijke schoolgrammatica afgeschaft worden. De Vlaamse beleidsmakers wekken ten onrechte de indruk dat het bij het M-decreet slechts om een beperkte aanpassing van het bestaande onderwijssysteem gaat.

    Als we  opteren voor inclusief onderwijs, dan moeten we uiteraard de leerlingen ook in het secundair onderwijs volledig samenhouden en dan sneuvelen ook de onderwijsvormen. En dan moeten we wellicht ook het hoger onderwijs openstellen voor alle leerlingen.






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