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    KRONOS
    chronologie - archeologie - oudheid
    01-07-2019
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Assyriology revised. The Biblical Assyrian kings Pul and Tiglath Pileser III are two separate kings and not one.

    1 Chronicles 5:25 And they transgressed against the God of their fathers, and went a whoring after the gods of the people of the land, whom God destroyed before them. 26 And the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgathpilneser king of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh, and brought them unto Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to the river Gozan, unto this day. (KJV)

     

    The observant reader will have noticed that the King James Translation of the Bible refers to two kings of Assyria at the time of king Menahem of Israel: Pul and Tilgathpilneser the latter also known as Tiglath Pileser. The KJV translated it correctly according to the original Hebrew text. The well-known Septuagint translation has also ‘and’ indicating two separate kings.

    LXX 1 Chronicles 5:25 But they rebelled against the God of their fathers, and went a-whoring after the gods of the nations of the land, whom God cast out from before them. 26 And the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Phaloch king of Assyria, and the spirit of Thagla-phallasar king of Assyria, and carried away Ruben and Gaddi, and the half-tribe of Manasse, and brought them to Chaach, and Chabor, and to the river Gozan, until this day.

     

    Accepting this as historically correct brings one immediately in collision with today ‘s science Assyriology. To Assyriology Pul and Tiglath Pileser III are one and the same person. Pul according to them being the Babylonian throne-name of Tiglath Pileser. A king with the name Pul reigned according to the Ptolemy-canon over Babylon from 22.02.731 till 20.02.726 BC, supposedly a similar time period of Tiglath Pileser III according to orthodox Assyriology. The fact that the original Hebrew text of the Bible has clearly two separate kings mentioned in 1 Chronicles 5:25 has no value whatsoever to Assyriology. They consider the Assyrian kings list as complete and firmly fixed on the timescale. Other historical sources like the Bible and the historian Flavius Josephus are rejected. This is however not my viewpoint and this article will show that some Assyrian kings-names went missing, were deleted from the kings list and that on several occasions in their history the Assyrian kings had co-regencies and consequently it is the Assyrian kings list and its modern chronology that needs adjusting.

     

     

    © Robert De Telder, Dertig Jubeljaren, 2018, page 261

     

    We start our revision with Pul and Tiglath Pileser III to be followed by Shalmaneser V, Sargon II and Sennacherib. All of these kings carried out campaigns against Israel and Judah. Flavius Josephus, the Jewish historian of the first Century AD, refers to the same invasion as mentioned in 1 Chronicles 5:25 and also declares Pul and Tiglath Pileser III to be two separate kings:

    Antiquities, Book IX, xi.1. …And after this manner it was that this Menahem continued to reign with cruelty and barbarity for ten years. But when Pul, king of Assyria, had made an expedition against him, he did not think meet to fight or engage in battle with the Assyrians, but he persuaded him to accept of a thousand talents of silver, and to go away, and so put an end to the war. This sum the multitude collected for Menahem, by exacting fifty drachme as poll-money for every head; after which he died, and was buried in Samaria, and left his son Pekahiah his successor in the kingdom, who followed the barbarity of his father, and so ruled but two years only, after which he was slain with his friends at a feast, by the treachery of one Pekah, the general of his horse, and the son of Remaliah, who laid snares for him. Now this Pekah held the government twenty years, and proved a wicked man and a transgressor. But the king of Assyria, whose name was Tiglath-Pileser, when he had made an expedition against the Israelites, and had overrun all the land of Gilead, and the region beyond Jordan, and the adjoining country, which is called Galilee, and Kadesh, and Hazor, he made the inhabitants prisoners, and transplanted them into his own kingdom. And so much shall suffice to have related here concerning the king of Assyria.

     

    According to the ‘Legends of the Jews’, compiled by Louis Ginzberg, (Chapter IX, The Two Kingdoms Chastised), we learn that three Assyrian invasions happened over a period of time:

    “Pekah, however, was not permitted to enjoy the fruits of his victory, for the king of Assyria invaded his empire, captured the golden calf at Dan, and led the tribes on the east side of Jordan away into exile. The dismemberment of the Israelitish kingdom went on apace for some years. Then the Assyrians, in the reign of Hoshea, carried off the second golden calf together with the tribes of Asher, Issachar, Zebulon, and Naphtali, leaving but one-eighth of the Israelites in their own land. The larger portion of the exiles was taken to Damascus. After that Israel's doom overtook it with giant strides, and the last ruler of Israel actually hastened the end of his kingdom by a pious deed. After the golden calves were removed by the Assyrians, Hoshea, the king of the north, abolished the institution of stationing the guards on the frontier between Judah and Israel to prevent pilgrimages to Jerusalem. But the people made no use of the liberty granted them. They persisted in their idolatrous cult, and this quickened their punishment. So long as their kings had put obstacles in their path, they could excuse themselves before God for not worshipping Him in the true way. The action taken by their king Hoshea left them no defense. When the Assyrians made their third incursion into Israel, the kingdom of the north was destroyed forever, and the people, one and all, were carried away into exile….”

     

     

    © Robert De Telder, Dertig Jubeljaren, 2018, page 262

     

    The invasion of Israel as mentioned in 1 Chronicles 5:25 is to be fixed at the timescale in the year 763 BC being the first year of reign of Menahem.

    It should be clear to the reader that I abandoned the shortened kings list of Israel and Judah as fabricated by Edwin R. Thiele linked to the Assyrian kings list. I returned to the naturally stretched out kings list as we find it in the Bible firmly linked within the historical Sabbat- and Jubilee-years-frame. King Menahem reigned from 763 BC till 753 BC. These years are the result when fixing the fourteenth year of reign of Hezekiah to the Sabbath year of april709/march708 BC followed by the Jubilee year of october709/september708 BC and navigate back from this way-point to the years of reign of king Uzzia (TIJD en TIJDEN, 2015, page 279/284).

    2 Kings 15:17 In the nine and thirtieth year of Azariah king of Judah began Menahem the son of Gadi to reign over Israel, and reigned ten years in Samaria. 18 And he did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord: he departed not all his days from the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin. 19 And Pul the king of Assyria came against the land: and Menahem gave Pul a thousand talents of silver, that his hand might be with him to confirm the kingdom in his hand. 20 And Menahem exacted the money of Israel, even of all the mighty men of wealth, of each man fifty shekels of silver, to give to the king of Assyria. So the king of Assyria turned back, and stayed not there in the land. (KJV)

     

    2 Kings 15:17-20 and 1 Chronicles 5:25 describe the same Assyrian invasion. On basis of the obtained information in the Bible and Josephus we have to fix the Biblical king of Assyria: Pul, on the time-scale approximately from the year 776 BC till 761 BC. Most probably Pul was the father of Tiglath Pileser III and both shared the crown of Assyria for some time. The preserved annals of Tiglath Pileser ‘s refer to receiving tribute from Menahem of Israel as well:

    Annals of Tiglat Pileser III, ANET 3 283: I received tribute from Kuštašpi of Commagene, Rezon of Damascus, Menahem of Samaria, Hiram of Tyre, Sibitti-bi'li of Byblos, Urikki of Qu'e, Pisiris of Karchemiš, I'nil of Hamath, Panammu of Sam'al, Tarhulara of Gurgum, Sulumal of Melitene, Dadili of Kaska, Uassarme of Tabal, Ušhitti of Tuhana, Tuhamma of Ištunda, Urimme of Hubišna, and Zabibe, the queen of Arabi - gold, silver, tin, iron, elephant-hides, ivory, linen garments with multi-coloured trimmings, blue-dyed wool, purple-dyed wool, ebony-wood, boxwood-wood, whatever was precious enough for a royal treasure; also lambs whose stretched hides were dyed purple, wild birds whose spread-out wings were dyed blue, furthermore horses, mules, large and small cattle, male dromedaries, female dromedaries with their foals.

     

    Assyriology has Tiglath Pileser III as king over Assyria from 745 till 727 BC which is in contradiction with the period of reign of Menahem of Israel: 763/753 BC based on the naturally stretched out chronology of the Biblical kings of Israel and Judah.

    Tiglath Pileser also refers to king Uzzia/Azariah of Judah as the leader of a coalition of Minor-Asian Kings:

    “In the course of my campaign, I received the tribute of the kings of the seacoast… Azariah of Judah, like… Azariah, the land of Judah… without number, reaching high to heaven and exceedingly great on earth… with eyes, as from heaven… by attack of charging infantry, by mines… they heard of the onset of Assur’s dense masses of troops and their hearts became afraid… I destroyed, I devastated, with fire I burned… which had gone over to Azariah and had strengthened him… like stumps… exceedingly difficult… was barred and was high… were situated… his egress… I had them bring… I surrounded his garrisoned towns and against… I caused them to carry and… his great… like pots I smashed… rider… Azariah… my royal palace… in…tribute like that of the Assyrians I laid upon them… and the city of Kullani… at his invitation… the cities of Usnu, Siannu, Simirra and …buna, which are on the seacoast, together with the cities up to Mount Saue, a mountain which abuts on Mount Lebanon, Mount Ba’li-sapuna, as far as Mount Amanus, the boxwood mountain, Mount Sau, in its entirety, the provinces of Kar-Adad, the city of Hatarikka, the province of Nukudina, Mount Hasu as well as the cities which lie about it, the city of Ara, the cities on both sides of them, together with the cities of Ashani and Iadabi, Mount Iaraku, in its entirety, the cities of… ri, Ellitarbi, Zitanu, up to the city Atinni, … the city of Bumane, - 19 districts of Hamath, together with the cities of their environs, which lie on the shore of the sea of the setting sun, which had gone over to Azariah, in revolt and contempt of Assyria, I brought within the border of Assyria. My officials I set over them as governors. 30.300 people I carried off from their cities and placed them in the province of the city of Ku-. 1.223 people I settled in the province of the land of Ulluba.”

     

     

    © Robert De Telder, Dertig Jubeljaren, 2018, page 263

     

    Uzzia/Azaria reigned over Judah from 803 till 750 BC. A larger part of Azaria‘s reign as from the year 776 BC his son Jotham was co-regent after Uzzia was struck with leprosy.

    Judah was a military superpower at the time and as such an obstacle for the ever expanding Assyrian empire. Revised I have Tiglath Pileser III reigning from about 761 BC till 735 BC. I realize that this is irreconcilable with present Assyrian chronology but since I stick to the Biblical chronology there is no other way. I will deal with the Eponym list regarding Tiglath Pileser III shortly. Please stay with me dear reader. The traced lineage of Tiglath Pileser III so far leaves a lot of questions unanswered by orthodox Assyriology which should raise doubts about their understanding of the eponym lists.

    Orthodox Assyriology has Tiglath Pileser III as the son of Assur Nirari which is contradicted by archeology. On a discovered stone-inscription Tiglath Pileser III is mentioned as the son of Adad Nirari (KAH,I, Nos. 21-23. Ancient records of Assyria and Babylonia by Daniel David Luckenbill, Chicago, 1926). The contradiction remains till today and was never explained. It is interesting to read a statement made by the Assyriologist Luckenbill regarding the preserved annals of Tiglath Pileser III:

    “The annals of Tiglath Pileser were engraved upon the slabs of the rebuilt central palace at Calah. These slabs were later removed by Essarhaddon to be used in his southwest palace of the same city. As a result of the removal and retrimming of the stone, the annals have come down to us in a fragmentary state. Without the aid of the Eponym lists with notes it would have been impossible to arrange the fragments in their chronological order, and, even so, future discoveries are likely to show that the arrangement now generally accepted is wrong

     

    This statement allows us to work on a revision of the chronology of the Assyrian kings on the time-scale and linked to the Bible this time.

    The Bible refers during this time period to the kings of Assyria in plural which can only mean that the throne of Assyria was shared by several kings at the same time. In the last year of reign of king Pekah of Israel in 735 BC Pekah marched against Jerusalem allied with Aram. It is in that particular year that Ahaz of Judah wrote a letter to the kings (kings in plural) for help against the deadly alliance by Samaria and Damascus.

    2 Chronicles 28:16 At that time did king Ahaz send unto the kings of Assyria to help him. 17 For again the Edomites had come and smitten Judah, and carried away captives. 18 The Philistines also had invaded the cities of the low country, and of the south of Judah, and had taken Bethshemesh, and Ajalon, and Gederoth, and Shocho with the villages thereof, and Timnah with the villages thereof, Gimzo also and the villages thereof: and they dwelt there. 19 For the Lord brought Judah low because of Ahaz king of Israel; for he made Judah naked, and transgressed sore against the Lord. 20 And Tilgathpilneser king of Assyria came unto him, and distressed him, but strengthened him not.

     

    The letter was sent to the kings of Assyria in plural but it was Tiglath Pileser III who descended to Damascus in 735 BC attacking the Arameans from the rear thus relieving Judah. Since Scripture does not come to hide but to explain I accept that the letter send to the kings of Assyria in plural refers to a co-reign of Tiglath Pileser together with another king. According to my revision this king is identified as Shalmaneser V who consequently held the crown of Assyria much longer than orthodox Assyriology allows. Shalmaneser V will be dealt with shortly.

    The attack against Jerusalem by Samaria and Damascus allied caused Ahaz of Judah to write to the kings of Assyria for help which brought the Assyrian for another campaign in the region.

    2 Kings 16:7 So Ahaz sent messengers to Tiglathpileser king of Assyria, saying, I am thy servant and thy son: come up, and save me out of the hand of the king of Syria, and out of the hand of the king of Israel, which rise up against me. 8 And Ahaz took the silver and gold that was found in the house of the Lord, and in the treasures of the king's house, and sent it for a present to the king of Assyria. 9 And the king of Assyria hearkened unto him: for the king of Assyria went up against Damascus, and took it, and carried the people of it captive to Kir, and slew Rezin. 10 And king Ahaz went to Damascus to meet Tiglathpileser king of Assyria, and saw an altar that was at Damascus: and king Ahaz sent to Urijah the priest the fashion of the altar, and the pattern of it, according to all the workmanship thereof. (KJV)

     

    This invasion has to fixed between the years 737 and 735 BC on the time-scale based on the chronology of the kings Pekah and Ahaz of Israel and Judah. Tiglath Pileser III refers in his preserved annals (Nimrud Tablet (in Rost, 78-81, lines 1-19) to the removal of Pekah and the establishment of Hoshea by him as king over Israel.

     

     

    © Robert De Telder, Dertig Jubeljaren, 2018, page 264

     

    Using the chronological information of the Bible and Josephus allows us to revise the length of reign over Assyria by Tiglath Pileser III. The year 763 BC had him campaigning against Israel as a co-regent or co-king with Pul. The year 735 BC had him campaigning against Damascus. His period of reign goes from approximately 763 till 735 BC with a minimum period of reign of approximately 30 years.

    Let us now adjust and correct the interpretation of the eponym-list regarding the reign of Tiglath Pileser III. I will show that there exists time-gaps in the list primarily caused by a cycle of mega-nature-catastrophes followed each time by a period of chaos and anarchy. I believe that Tiglath Pileser III was most probably the son of Adad Nirari IV alias Pul who was a usurper of the Assyrian crown at that time of upheaval in the month October of the year 776 BC when it seemed that the world was about to end such was the magnitude of the mega-nature-catastrophe that hit planet Earth that year. Fifty four years and six months later a similar major catastrophe hit the ancient world in April 722 BC the same month and year when king Ahaz of Judah died with a reported catastrophe occurring at that exact time by Jewish Legend. In between there were mega natural upheavals in the years 761, 748, 735 and 709 BC.

    I have Tiglath Pileser III become sole-ruler in 761 BC. The eponym of Nab(?)-bela-usur is herewith adjusted to the year 761/760 BC. Hereafter follows the eponym list. To the left I have added my revised years and between brackets the orthodox years:

    761/760 [745/744] During the eponomy of Nab-bela-usur, the governor of Arrapha, in Ajaru, the thirteenth, Tiglath-pileser [III] ascended the throne. In Tašrtu, he on Mesopotamia.

    760/759 [744/743] During the eponomy of Bl-dan, the governor of Kalhu, campaign against Namri.

    759/758 [743/742] During the eponomy of Tiglath-pileser, the king of Assyria, there was a massacre among the Urartians in Arpad.

    (Comment: There are additional preserved annals of Tiglath Pileser from his palace-walls at Kalhu. On it he claims to have received tribute in his third year of reign from Azaria of Judah and Menahem of Israel.)

    758/757 [742/741] During the eponomy of Nab-da'inannil, the commander in chief, campaign against Arpad.

    757/756 [741/740]During the eponomy of Bl-Harran-bla-usur, the palace herald, campaign against the same; the city was taken after three years.

    756/755 [740/739] During the eponomy of Nab-etiranni, the chief butler, campaign against Arpad.

    755/754 [739/738] During the eponomy of Sin-taklak, the chamberlain, campaign against Ulluba; Birtu was captured

    754/753 [738/737] During the eponomy of Adad-bla-ka'in, the governor of Aššur, Kullania was captured.

    (Comment: The mentioned city Kullania is the same place as Biblical Calno to which the prophet Isaiah referred: Isaiah 10:5 O Assyrian, the rod of mine anger, and the staff in their hand is mine indignation. 6 I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets. 7 Howbeit he meaneth not so, neither doth his heart think so; but it is in his heart to destroy and cut off nations not a few. 8 For he saith, Are not my princes altogether kings? 9 Is not Calno as Carchemish? is not Hamath as Arpad? is not Samaria as Damascus?”

    From Tiglath Pileser III’s eight year of reign some annals were preserved stating that he received tribute from Menahem of Israel that year. The year 754/753 BC was the last year of reign of Menahem and thus fits the revised framework.)

    753/752 [737/736] During the eponomy of Bl-emuranni, the governor of Rasappa, campaign against Media.

    Comment: the well-known so called Iran-stele dates back to this campaign. On it the name Menahem among other appears again as tribute-payers.

    752/751 [736/735] During the eponomy of Inurta-ilaya, the governor of Nisibis, campaign at the foot of Mount Nal.

    751/750 [735/734] During the eponomy of Aššur-šallimanni, the governor of Arrapha, campaign against Urartu.

    750/749 [734/733] During the eponomy of Bl-dan, the governor of Kalhu, campaign against Philistia.

    Comment: In the course of Tiglath Pileser ’s campaign against Philistia we fix the described Assyrian invasion in 2 Kings 15:29 on the time-scale

    2 Kings 15:29 In the days of Pekah king of Israel came Tiglathpileser king of Assyria, and took Ijon, and Abelbethmaachah, and Janoah, and Kedesh, and Hazor, and Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria (KJV).

    The corresponding annals of Tiglath Pileser III on the walls of his palace in Kalhu were lost. Essarhaddon the son of Sanherib had the tiles during his days already removed and recycled for use in his new built palace. We only have the short remark in the eponym of ‘B(?)l-dan’ that he marched against Philistia but seen from a chronological viewpoint the same campaign took him to Northern Israel.

    749/748 [733/732] During the eponomy of Aššur-da'inanni, the governor of Mazamua, campaign against Damascus.

    Comment: The year 748 BC witnessed a worldwide mega-catastrophe that caused a period of chaos for a long time and which is responsible for a time-gap in the Assyrian eponym list. A year later the so called Nabonassar-era started together with a necessary calendar-reform. The year 748 BC was also the year of the withdrawal of the Judaean army out of Egypt. All this I discussed in my book TIJD en TIJDEN, 2015, which is not as yet translated into English.

    Anyway by linking the chronological information we have on Tiglath Pileser III on the Bible time-scale forces us to accept a much longer period of reign for the Assyrian king. There is definitely a gap between 748 BC and 735 BC and this on basis of the Biblical chronological framework. The eponym of ‘Nab(?)-b(?)la-usur’ is revised fixed to 735 BC the year Hoshea was installed as king over Israel by Tiglath Pileser III.

    735/734 [732/731] During the eponomy of Nab-bla-usur, the governor of Si'imme, campaign against Damascus.

    734/733 [731/730] During the eponomy of Nergal-uballit, the governor of Ahizu-hina, campaign against Šapiya.

    Comment: Sapiya lies south of Babylon on the map and this campaign is also mentioned on preserved annals obtained from his palace-walls at Kalhu.

    733/732 [730/729] During the eponomy of Bl-lu-dari, the governor of Tille, the king stayed in the land.

    Comment: ‘the king stayed in the land’ is a euphemism for doing nothing. Nothing was preserved regarding this year from the annals at his palace-walls.

    732/731 [729/728] During the eponomy of Liphur-ilu, the governor of Habruri, the king took the hand of B(?)l [???and became king of Babylonia???].

    Comment: ‘the expression the king took the hand of Bel’ was used for the kingship over Babylon. According to Assyriology Tiglath Pileser III was equal to the Babylonian Pul an identification we rejected already earlier. According to my revision the following kings of Babylon are now contemporaries with Tiglath Pileser III: Nabu-shuma-ishkun (761-748 BC) and Nubu-nasir or Nabonassar (748/734 BC). Tiglath Pileser III undertook several campaigns to the area of Babylon and annexed large parts of its territory. I doubt that he ever marched into the city of Babylon. The Babylonian kings list does not refer to him.

    731/730 [728/727]During the eponomy of Dur-Aššur, the governor of Tušhan, the king took the hand of Bl; the city of Hi[...] was captured.

    The eponym of Dur-Aššur is the last one for Tiglath Pileser. The next eponym of Bl-Harran-bla-usur has Shalmaneser ascending the throne:

    730/729 [727/726] During the eponomy of Bl-Harran-bla-usur, the governor of Guzana, campaign against [...]. Šalmaneser [V] ascended the throne.

     

    To be continued…

    Robert De Telder

     

    Recent publications:

    Dertig Jubeljaren, 2018, zie link: https://www.bol.com/nl/p/dertig-jubeljaren/9200000101929798/?suggestionType=searchhistory&bltgh=jLyCAgDUe71UKHV4eLlBLQ.1.7.ProductImage&fbclid=IwAR1FW-GC4SRsGCLFOa0BP_MG9IXEYx3Uo2Ugz3s6x74aPfO0kexdKcN4hqU

    Kronieken van de koningen van Israël, 2017, zie link: https://www.bol.com/nl/p/kronieken-van-de-koningen-van-israel/9200000086650052/?suggestionType=searchhistory

    EXODUS, 2016, zie link: http://www.bravenewbooks.nl/books/102331

    Dit boek kan inmiddels volledig online gelezen worden via de volgende link: https://jezusleeft.weebly.com/exodus.html

    De Zonaanbidder, 2016, zie link: http://www.bravenewbooks.nl/books/87999

    TIJD en TIJDEN, 2015, Zie link: http://boekscout.nl/shop/ViewProduct.aspx?bookId=5579

    De Assyriologie herzien, 2012, zie link: http://www.bravenewbooks.nl/books/76234

    De Tweede Wereldoorlog door de ogen van een neutrale Belg, 2007, zie link: http://www.bravenewbooks.nl/books/69343

    Genesis versus Egyptologie, 2009, dit boek is uitverkocht maar kan online gelezen worden op de hierna volgende link: http://jezusleeft.weebly.com/genesis-versus-egyptologie.html

    Apocalyps, 2009, (dit boek is uitverkocht maar op een PDF-document gratis op eenvoudig verzoek per email bij de auteur verkrijgbaar)


    01-07-2019 om 08:55 geschreven door Robert De Telder  

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