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  • Minister Frank Vandenbroucke (Sp.a) nam Onderwijskrantinterview van januari 2006 afstand van de egalitaire onderwijsideologie van veel Vlaamse onderwijssociologen en Sp.a-kopstukken
  • Leraar Johan De Donder over stemmingmakerij tegen het onderwijs in de UNIA-studie over attestering & Rarf Feys over de nefaste gevolgen van vele stemmingmakerij van de voorbije decennia
  • Toevallig internet-debatje tussen Raf Feys (ex-lerarenopleider) en Koen Smets (lerarenopleider) over evidence-based onderwijs en belang van strikt wetenschappelijk onderzoek
  • Nefaste invloed van egalitaire en cultuurrelativistische Bourdieu-sociologen/pedagogen op het bevorderen van ontwikkelingskansen van (kansarmere) leerlingen
  • Over belang van (belaagde) vakdisciplines voor het onderwijs
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    Onderwijskrant Vlaanderen
    Vernieuwen: ja, maar in continuïteit!
    01-02-2015
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Terechte paniek bij schooldirecteurs en nieuwe vereniging

    Belgabericht in DS over nieuwe vereniging voor onderwijsdirecteurs

    1.Commentaar van Raf Feys: Schooldirecteurs verenigen zich. Eindelijk! Terechte paniek bij schooldirecteurs

    *Wij vinden dat de directeurs vandaag te weinig gehoord worden’, zei initiatiefneemster Marie-Jeanne Baelmans. ‘Het personeel ziet ons als werkgever, de schoolbesturen als werknemer.’ Commentaar: als de bestuurlijke schaalvergroting met de eraan verbonden 'betaalde bestuurders' wordt ingevoerd, zullen er zich niet veel kandidaat-directeurs meer aanbieden. Er zullen ook nog weinig mensen willen functioneren als vrijwillige bestuurder naast de betaalde bestuurders.

     *"De directies zien veel uitdagingen op zich af komen: schaalvergroting, hervorming secundair, het M-decreet. dat meer kinderen met speciale behoeften in het gewoon onderwijs brengt." Commentaar: Er is duidelijk geen draagvlak voor de hervorming van het s.o. en voor het M-decreet. We zijn er ook van overtuigd dat uit een peiling zou blijken dat er ook geen draagvlak bestaat voor de bestuurlijke schaalvergroting, dat de meeste praktijkmensen vinden dat de nadelen veel groter zijn dan de voordelen. We stellen de nieuwe vereniging van directies voor om eens te peilen naar het draagvlak voor deze hervorming.

    2. Belgabericht in De Standaard (31 januari)

    Directeurs van scholen uit alle netten en van alle niveaus (basis, secundair en deeltijds kunstonderwijs) verenigen zich en dat is behoorlijk uniek. Zij hebben de Vereniging Leidinggevenden Vlaams Onderwijs (VLVO) opgericht. Gisteren op de Dag van de Directeur, stelden ze zich aan de buitenwereld voor.Wij vinden dat de directeurs vandaag te weinig gehoord worden’, zei initiatiefneemster Marie-Jeanne Baelmans. ‘Het personeel ziet ons als werkgever, de schoolbesturen als werknemer.’

    De vereniging wil de specifieke belangen van de directies verdedigen, en hen vorming en advies aanbieden.De directies zien veel uitdagingen op zich af komen: schaalvergroting, hervorming secundair, het M-decreet. dat meer kinderen met speciale behoeften in het gewoon onderwijs brengt.

    De VLVO heeft daarbij één groot strijdpunt: meer omkadering. ‘Alle directeurs klagen erover dat ze te weinig medewerkers hebben voor de vele administratieve taken. Wij horen de minister graag zeggen dat dit een prioriteit is maar we beseffen ook dat er geen geld is.’De vereniging wil (en kan) geen vakbond zijn, maar ze wil wel graag op het beleid wegen via informele gesprekken en langs contacten met de parlementsleden in de commissie onderwijs.Ze zal ook meewerken aan het opstellen van een beroepsstandaard die oplijst aan welke voorwaarden een directeur moet voldoen.


    01-02-2015 om 17:44 geschreven door Raf Feys  

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Prof. Geert Kelchtermans: 'Onderwijs is geen stuurbare machine'

    Onderwijspedagoog Geert Kelchtermans: "Onderwijs is geen stuurbare machine"

    campuskrant Jaargang 26 nr. 05 (28 januari 2015)

    Citaat: "Moet je b.v. onverdeeld voor inclusief onderwijs pleiten, zoals de decreetgever dat vandaag wil? In theorie ja, maar in de praktijk kan het heel goed zijn dat leerlingen met een bepaalde achtergrond juist beter gedijen in het bijzonder onderwijs"

    Welk wetenschappelijk idee is volgens onze proffen en onderzoekers rijp voor de prullenmand?

    Onderwijspedagoog Geert Kelchtermans heeft het niet begrepen op grootschalige, mechanisch aangestuurde onderwijshervormingen. “Daar blijft meestal weinig van overeind, omdat ze uitgaan van een verkeerde opvatting van wat het onderwijs is. Dat is geen maakbare, technisch stuurbare machine, maar een dynamisch proces waarin sleutelfiguren – de leraren in scholen – voortdurend beslissingen nemen op basis van waardeoordelen. Als je dat lineair wil sturen, ga je voorbij aan de werkelijkheid.”

    “Onderwijs krijgt vorm door voortdurende keuzes: welke stof geef je, welke maatregelen neem je bij problemen met de orde in de groep, welke leerlingen zet je samen, welke onderwijsvormen bied je als school aan, enzovoort. Die beslissingen zijn zelden louter technisch. Ze staan of vallen altijd met de vraag of de leerlingen er beter van worden. En dat is nooit een mechanische, maar altijd een ethische afweging.”

    Kunt u enkele concrete voorbeelden geven?

    “Neem een heel eenvoudige regel als: ‘Behandel iedereen gelijk’. Wie de les verstoort met gebabbel, krijgt straf. Mooi principe, maar wat doe je met leerling X, die nieuw is en zich al maanden als een muurbloempje gedraagt, maar vandaag plots met zijn buren begint te babbelen? Moet je die dan straffen? Ja, als je de regel volgt. Nee, als je de situatie van die leerling kent en oog hebt voor zijn ontplooiing.”

    “Of op een wat hoger niveau: moet je onverdeeld voor inclusief onderwijs pleiten, zoals de decreetgever dat vandaag wil? In theorie ja, maar in de praktijk kan het heel goed zijn dat leerlingen met een bepaalde achtergrond juist beter gedijen in het bijzonder onderwijs. In het vorm geven aan hun onderwijs maken leraren dus voortdurend waardegebonden keuzes. En op diezelfde manier zullen ze ook instructies voor hervorming en vernieuwing vanuit de overheid interpreteren en beoordelen, en dan vertalen in de concrete praktijk. Daarin liggen precies hun deskundigheid, engagement en verantwoordelijkheid. Dat maakt hen tot ‘professionals.’”

    Zet u dan de deur niet open voor chaos?

    “Neen, niet per se. Ik pleit ook niet voor anarchie of stuurloosheid, maar wel tegen de idee dat onderwijshervorming lineair stuurbaar zou zijn. Zo werkt het niet. Maar naast deze vraag naar de effectiviteit van de sturing is er onvermijdelijk ook de vraag naar de legitimiteit. Een hervorming krijgt maar legitimiteit doordat ze beweert een ‘verbetering’ te zijn. Maar beter voor wie? Beter in welke zin? Naast een ethische is dat ook een politieke vraag omdat de sturing erop gericht is anderen – de scholen, de lerarenteams – te laten doen wat men wenselijker vindt.”

    “De idee dat het onderwijs verbeterd kan worden door sturende maatregelen, bijvoorbeeld regelgeving, handboeken of curriculumrichtlijnen, impliceert uiteindelijk ook dat men de mensen in de scholen reduceert tot uitvoerders van voorschriften. Daarmee miskent men net hun oordeelsvermogen en deskundigheid. En dus uiteindelijk ook de kern van hun pedagogisch engagement en hun ‘professionaliteit’. In de literatuur spreekt men dan over de fidelity approach: een hervorming is geslaagd als de scholen zo getrouw mogelijk de bedoelingen van de hervormers uitvoeren. Weerstand van leerkrachten tegen bepaalde vernieuwingen wordt tegen die achtergrond afgedaan als luiheid, gemakzucht, conservatisme. En dat terwijl ze vaak heel goede redenen hebben voor die terughoudendheid tegenover vernieuwingen.”

    Dat weet de overheid toch ook wel?

    “Dat hoop ik ook, ja. En ik begrijp ook dat zij vanuit hun democratische en maatschappelijke verantwoordelijkheid initiatieven voor verbetering willen nemen. Maar kijk, onderzoek én ervaring leren volgende belangrijke vuistregel: in onderwijs en opvoeding gebeurt er altijd zowel meer als minder dan wat men gepland had. Er zijn altijd ‘neveneffecten’, ten goede of ten kwade, en die zijn niet van te voren te voorzien of uit te sluiten. Verder zijn ze vaak ook gekoppeld aan concrete contexten: de ene school is de andere niet.”

    “Onderwijsvernieuwing kan niet zonder cyclische processen van dialoog en terugkoppeling vanuit de concrete praktijk naar het beleid. Ja, dat vraagt geduld, kritische zin en zorgvuldig onderzoek. Maar het vergroot de kans dat je op termijn tot betere maatregelen en duurzame effecten komt, in plaats van de niet aflatende stroom van hervormingsinitiatieven die we de voorbije decennia op de scholen hebben zien afkomen.”

    Ludo Meyvis


    01-02-2015 om 17:36 geschreven door Raf Feys  

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    Tags:Geert Klechtermans, onderwijs is geen bestuurbare machine,
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    30-01-2015
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.visie op wiskundeonderwijs vanwege National Centre for Excellence in the Teaching of Mathematics

    Nieuw curriculum wiskunde in Engeland: visie op vakdidactiek wiskunde van National Centre for Excellence in the Teaching of Mathematics .
    Ook in Vlaanderen wordt gewerkt aan een nieuw leerplan en aan nieuwe eindtermen. De visie van het 'National Centre..." komt vrij goed overeen met de visie die we in onze publicaties over wiskundeonderwijs propageerden: zie b.v Rekenen tot honderd, Uitgeverij Plantyn (Mechelen). We juichen ook toe dat men afstand neemt van de constructivistische aanpak.

    Deel 1 : Mastery approaches to mathematics and the new national curriculum

    1.‘Mastery’ in high performing countries

    The content and principles underpinning the 2014 mathematics curriculum reflect those found in high performing education systems internationally, particularly those of east and south-east Asian countries such as Singapore, Japan, South Korea and China. The OECD suggests that by age 15 students from these countries are on average up to three years ahead in maths compared to 15 year olds in England .
    What underpins this success is the far higher proportion of pupils reaching a high standard and the relatively small gaps in attainment between pupils in comparison to England. Though there are many differences between the education systems of England and those of east and south-east Asia, we can learn from the ‘mastery’ approach to teaching commonly followed in these countries. Certain principles and features characterise this approach:

    • Teachers reinforce an expectation that all pupils are capable of achieving high standards in mathematics.
    • The large majority of pupils progress through the curriculum content at the same pace. Differentiation is achieved by emphasising deep knowledge and through individual support and intervention.
    • Teaching is underpinned by methodical curriculum design and supported by carefully crafted lessons and resources to foster deep conceptual and procedural knowledge. • Practice and consolidation play a central role. Carefully designed variation within this builds fluency and understanding of underlying mathematical concepts in tandem.
    • Teachers use precise questioning in class to test conceptual and procedural knowledge, and assess pupils regularly to identify those requiring intervention so that all pupils keep up.The intention of these approaches is to provide all children with full access to the curriculum, enabling them to achieve confidence and competence – ‘mastery’ – in mathematics, rather than many failing to develop the maths skills they need for the future.

    2. Curriculum changes

    The 2014 national curriculum for mathematics has been designed to raise standards in maths, with the aim that the large majority of pupils will achieve mastery of the subject. Mathematics programmes of study state that:
    • All pupils should become fluent in the fundamentals of mathematics, including through varied and frequent practice, so that pupils develop conceptual understanding and are able to recall and apply their knowledge rapidly and accurately to problems.
    • The expectation is that the majority of pupils will move through the programmes of study at broadly the same pace. When to progress should always be based on the security of pupils’ understanding and their readiness to progress to the next stage.
    • Pupils who grasp concepts rapidly should be challenged through rich and sophisticated problems before any acceleration through new content. Those pupils who are not sufficiently fluent with earlier material should consolidate their understanding, including through additional practice, before moving on.
    For many schools and teachers the shift to this ‘mastery curriculum’ will be a significant one. It will require new approaches to lesson design, teaching, use of resources and support for pupils.

    3.Key features of the mastery approach

    3.1 Curriculum design
    A detailed, structured curriculum is mapped out across all phases, ensuring continuity and supporting transition. Effective mastery curricula in mathematics are designed in relatively small carefully sequenced steps, which must each be mastered before pupils move to the next stage. Fundamental skills and knowledge are secured first. This often entails focusing on curriculum content in considerable depth at early stages.

    3.2 Teaching resources
    A coherent programme of high quality curriculum materials is used to support classroom teaching. Concrete and pictorial representations of mathematics are chosen carefully to help build procedural and conceptual knowledge together.
    Exercises are structured with great care to build deep conceptual knowledge alongside developing procedural fluency. The focus is on the development of deep structural knowledge and the ability to make connections. Making connections in mathematics deepens knowledge of concepts and procedures, ensures what is learnt is sustained over time, and cuts down the time required to assimilate and master later concepts and techniques. One medium for coherent curriculum materials is high quality textbooks. These have the additional advantage that pupils also use them to return to topics studied, for consolidation and for revision. They represent an important link between school and home.

    3.3 Lesson design
    Lessons are crafted with similar care and are often perfected over time with input from other teachers, drawing on evidence from observations of pupils in class. Lesson designs set out in detail well-tested methods to teach a given mathematical topic. They include a variety of representations needed to introduce and explore a concept effectively and also set out related teacher explanations and questions to pupils.

    3.4 Teaching methods
    In highly successful systems, teachers are clear that their role is to teach in a precise way which makes it possible for all pupils to engage successfully with tasks at the expected level of challenge. Pupils work on the same tasks and engage in common discussions. Concepts are often explored together to make mathematical relationships explicit and strengthen pupils’ understanding of mathematical connectivity. Precise questioning during lessons ensures that pupils develop fluent technical proficiency and think deeply about the underpinning mathematical concepts. There is no prioritisation between technical proficiency and conceptual understanding; in successful classrooms these two key aspects of mathematical learning are developed in parallel.

    3.5 Pupil support and differentiation

    Taking a mastery approach, differentiation occurs in the support and intervention provided to different pupils, not in the topics taught, particularly at earlier stages. There is no differentiation in content taught, but the questioning and scaffolding individual pupils receive in class as they work through problems will differ, with higher attainers challenged through more demanding problems which deepen their knowledge of the same content. Pupils’ difficulties and misconceptions are identified through immediate formative assessment and addressed with rapid intervention – commonly through individual or small group support later the same day: there are very few “closing the gap” strategies, because there are very few gaps to close.

    3.6 Productivity and practice

    Fluency comes from deep knowledge and practice. Pupils work hard and are productive. At early stages, explicit learning of multiplication tables is important in the journey towards fluency and contributes to quick and efficient mental calculation. Practice leads to other number facts becoming second nature. The ability to recall facts from long term memory and manipulate them to work out other facts is also All tasks are chosen and sequenced carefully, offering appropriate variation in order to reveal the underlying mathematical structure to pupils. Both class work and homework provide this ‘intelligent practice’, which helps to develop deep and sustainable knowledge.

    Deel 2: Bijlage over differentiatie

    " I think it may well be the case that one of the most common ways we use differentiation in primary school mathematics… has had, and continues to have, a very negative effect on the mathematical attainment of our children at primary school and throughout their education. "
    Charlie’s Angles: Approaches to differentiation; defining a ‘mastery’ approach
    Thoughts on topical issues of mathematics education from the NCETM’s Director, Charlie Stripp

    I’ll be controversial: I think it may well be the case that one of the most common ways we use differentiation in primary school mathematics, which is intended to help challenge the ‘more able’ pupils and to help the ‘weaker’ pupils to grasp the basics, has had, and continues to have, a very negative effect on the mathematical attainment of our children at primary school and throughout their education, and that this is one of the root causes of our low position in international comparisons of achievement in mathematics education.

    If my suspicion about the damage caused by current practice in differentiation in many maths lessons is correct, we should do something about it. However, I do recognise that an individual school’s interpretation of differentiation is rarely as black and white as I paint it below, and I know that many primary teachers put a great deal of thought and effort into developing differentiation models for maths teaching. For that reason, we should examine the evidence very carefully and carry out serious trials to help determine whether a different approach will improve children’s mathematical learning.

    Put crudely, standard approaches to differentiation commonly used in our primary school maths lessons involve some children being identified as ‘mathematically weak’ and being taught a reduced curriculum with ‘easier’ work to do, whilst others are identified as ‘mathematically able’ and given extension tasks. This approach is used with the best of intentions: to give extra help to those who are having difficulty with maths, so they can grasp key ideas, and to challenge those who seem to grasp ideas quickly. It sounds like common sense. However, in the light of international evidence from high performing jurisdictions in the Far East, and the ‘mindset’1 research I referred to in my last blog, I’m beginning to wonder whether such approaches to differentiation may be very damaging in several ways.

    For the children identified as ‘mathematically weak’:
    1.They are aware that they are being given less-demanding tasks, and this helps to fix them in a negative ‘I’m no good at maths’ mindset that will blight their mathematical futures.
    2.Because they are missing out on some of the curriculum, their access to the knowledge and understanding they need to make progress is restricted, so they get further and further behind, which reinforces their negative view of maths and their sense of exclusion.
    3.Being challenged (at a level appropriate to the individual) is a vital part of learning. With low challenge, children can get used to not thinking hard about ideas and persevering to achieve success.

    For the children identified as ‘mathematically able’:
    1.Extension work, unless very skilfully managed, can encourage the idea that success in maths is like a race, with a constant need to rush ahead, or it can involve unfocused investigative work that contributes little to pupils’ understanding. This means extension work can often result in superficial learning. Secure progress in learning maths is based on developing procedural fluency and a deep understanding of concepts in parallel, enabling connections to be made between mathematical ideas. Without deep learning that develops both of these aspects, progress cannot be sustained.

    2.Being identified as ‘able’ can limit pupils’ future progress by making them unwilling to tackle maths they find demanding because they don’t want to challenge their perception of themselves as being ‘clever’ and therefore finding maths easy. A key finding from Carol Dweck’s work on mindsets1 is that you should not praise children for being clever when they succeed at something, but instead should praise them for working hard. That way, they will learn to associate achievement with effort (which is something they can influence themselves – by working hard!), not ‘cleverness’ (a trait perceived as absolute and that they cannot change).
    I’m not going to address differentiation in secondary school maths teaching directly here as I plan to make that the subject of a future article in this blog, but I do think much of what I’m saying here also applies at secondary level.

    Countries at the top of the table for attainment in mathematics education employ a mastery approach to teaching mathematics. Teachers in these countries do not differentiate their maths teaching by restricting the mathematics that ‘weaker’ children experience, whilst encouraging ‘able’ children to ‘get ahead’ through extension tasks (terms such as ‘weaker’ and ‘able’ are subjective, and imply that children’s ability in maths is fixed - I think they are very damaging and we should stop using them – many teachers already have, but many still use them). Instead, countries employing a mastery approach expose almost all of the children to the same curriculum content at the same pace, allowing them all full access to the curriculum by focusing on developing deep understanding and secure fluency with facts and procedures, and providing differentiation by offering rapid support and intervention to address each individual pupil’s needs. An approach based on mastery principles:makes use of mathematical representations that expose the underlying structure of the mathematics;helps children to make sense of concepts and achieve fluency through carefully structured questions, exercises and problems that use conceptual and procedural variation to provide ‘intelligent practice’, which develops conceptual understanding and procedural fluency in parallel;blends whole class discussion and precise questioning with intelligent practice and, where necessary, individual support.

    Colleagues at the NCETM and I have produced this short paper: ‘Mastery approaches to mathematics and the new National Curriculum’ , which defines what we mean by mastery, links it to the National Curriculum, and highlights its implications for the professional development of teachers. This work is supported by the Department for Education, which is keen to see how mastery teaching can raise achievement in schools. This video clip of an English year 2 primary class learning how to add fractions shows mastery teaching in action.

    A major element of the NCETM’s leadership and development of mastery teaching is through the DfE-funded ‘England-China Mathematics Education Innovation Research Project’, involving more than 60 teachers from England shadowing primary mathematics teachers in Shanghai (the English teachers are in Shanghai as I write this) to observe mastery teaching in practice, followed by the Shanghai teachers coming to England to exemplify mastery teaching in our classrooms and to support the English teachers in making sense of and trying out a mastery approach to their maths teaching.

    This project is being run through the NCETM’s Maths Hubs initiative. Testing out new ideas in the classroom to gather evidence of how effective they are, before advocating which should be adopted more widely, is a key role of the Maths Hubs. The English primary school teachers involved have embarked on this project with great enthusiasm. They have a strong desire to learn as much as they can about how maths is taught in Shanghai and want to use what they learn to develop their own teaching back in England to improve their pupils’ learning.
    The project will help us to develop how we use the mastery approach to maths teaching in our primary schools, to improve maths education and the mathematical futures of our young people. It also provides a brilliant opportunity to develop close working relationships between the English and Chinese teachers involved, so that they can learn from each other, to the benefit of teachers and children in both England and Shanghai.

    It might also lead us to start moving away from the practice of dividing primary maths classes into different tables, with harmless sounding names, but names which nevertheless don’t fool even the pupils on the ‘red’ table!
    It will not be quick or straightforward to improve the learning of our lower attaining pupils, narrowing the wide gaps between pupils’ mathematical attainment that currently exist in our classrooms, but we must be committed to doing so. I believe that mastery teaching will – with time and effort – enable us to achieve this.


    30-01-2015 om 11:04 geschreven door Raf Feys  

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    Tags:wikundeonderwijs, National Centre for Excellence in the Teaching of Mathematics
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    27-01-2015
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Onderwijs. Recht op buitengewoon onderwijs vanaf de eerste dag eerste leerjaar. Haaks op M-decreet.
    Recht op buitengewoon onderwijs en dit vanaf de 'eerste dag van het eerste leerjaar' - haaks op M-decreet

    Duitse ouders eisten voor hun kind de rechtbank "recht op toegang tot het buitengewoon onderwijs vanaf de eerste dag van het eerste l...eerjaar". ze krijgen gelijk van Duitse rechtbank. Minister Crevits & beleidsmakers moeten o.i. dringend M-decreet aanpassen/versoepelen.

    Duitse ouders gingen niet akkoord met het feit dat hun kind bij de start van het eerste leerjaar niet meer naar het buitengewoon kon (cf. ons M-decreet). Ze protesteerden bij de rechtbank.
    „Jeder Mensch hat ein Recht auf Bildung”, argumentiert der Jurist, “dieses Recht hat Verfassungsrang. Mit der Inklusion, wie sie hier umgesetzt wird, nimmt man den Kindern Ressourcen, ohne neue zu schaffen.‟ Dem Verwaltungsgericht Braunschweig war sofort klar: Mirko müsse auf eine Förderschule gehen, zur Not eine Klasse
    Meer weergeven

    27-01-2015 om 16:35 geschreven door Raf Feys  

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    Tags:M-decreet, inclusief onderwijs
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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Onderwijs. Fundamentele kritiek van Duitse directeur s.o. op inclusief onderwijs à la M-decreet

    Fundamentele kritiek van Duitse directeur s.o. op inclusief onderwijs à la M-decreet

    Interview zum Thema Inklusion met directeur s.o. in Weltfäliche Nzachrichten, 24 janruair 2015

    „Jeder Mensch ist gleich viel wert“ #inclusief onderwijs
    Directeur Gymnasium : „Das mehrgliedrige Schulsystem einschließlich seiner Förderschulen ist das beste Programm der ,individuellen Förderung‘, das es auf der W...elt gibt.“

    Inklusion ist das Stichwort. Nach wie vor ist es umstritten, ob der gemeinsame Unterricht an einer weiterführenden Schule für Kinder mit und ohne Behinderung der richtige Weg ist. Gibt es überhaupt wirklich gemeinsamen Unterricht? Profitieren die Kinder? Oder ist genau das Gegenteil der Fall? WN-Redakteurin Bettina Laerbusch sprach mit Helmut Seifen, dem Leiter des Werner-von-Siemens-
    *Inklusion – welche Schlagworte kommen Ihnen da zuallererst in den Sinn? Helmut Seifen: Unvernunft und Paradoxie. Warum diese? Seifen: Weil der Inklusion eine völlig verquere Vorstellung des Aufklärungs- und Humanitätsgedanken zugrunde liegt.

    *Die UN-Konvention fordert Inklusion, also die gleichberechtigte Teilhabe aller Menschen am gesellschaftlichen Leben. Seifen: In der UN-Konvention steht unter Paragraf 5 aber auch, dass besondere Maßnahmen, die zur Beschleunigung oder Herbeiführung der tatsächlichen Gleichberechtigung von Menschen mit Behinderungen erforderlich sind, nicht als Diskriminierung gelten. Die Konvention lässt also besser geeignete Bestimmungen unberührt, und dazu gehören die Förderschulen in Deutschland.

    *Was besagt der Aufklärungs- und Humanitätsgedanke denn Ihrer Meinung nach?Seifen: Dass die Menschen, so wie sie sind, alle die gleiche Würde haben. Jeder hat das Recht, Bildung zu erfahren, die ihn zu einem selbstbestimmten Leben befähigt. Die Inklusion geht davon aus, dass alle Menschen denselben Weg gehen sollen. Das verlangt der Humanitätsgedanke überhaupt nicht. Die Verantwortlichen früherer Zeiten haben aus dieser Sicht heraus für unterschiedliche Begabungen unterschiedliche Bildungsgänge entwickelt. Das nicht aus dem Grund, zu diskriminieren oder zu selektieren, sondern sie haben unterschiedlich begabte Schüler lediglich auf Zeit separiert, damit die unterschiedlichen Begabungen zu ihrem Recht kommen. Und zwar aus dem Bewusstsein heraus, dass jeder Mensch, egal welche Schule er besucht und welchen Schulabschluss er hat, gleich viel wert ist und zu einem selbstbestimmten Leben befähigt werden muss.

    *Ist die Inklusion Ihrer Meinung nach nur an Gymnasien frommer Wunsch oder auch an Real,- Haupt- oder Gesamtschulen? Seifen: Eine Regelschule schafft Zielgleichheit untereinander, die zum gleichen Abschluss führt. Das gilt für die Haupt- und Realschule, die Gesamt- und Sekundarschule genauso wie für das Gymnasium. Bei körperlicher Einschränkung ist das natürlich überhaupt kein Problem. Doch überall dort, wo der Förderbedarf so hoch ist, dass das Kind auf keinen Fall den Abschluss der jeweiligen Schule erreichen kann, ist es praktisch nicht möglich, diesem Schüler gerecht zu werden. Es macht keinen Sinn, ihn auf einer Regelschule zu unterrichten, weil es unmöglich ist, effizienten Unterricht so breit anzulegen. Wer dies glaubt, hat offensichtlich falsche Vorstellung von dem, was Unterricht zu leisten hat.

    *LAT-inclusie !Aber es gibt Förderlehrer (leraars buitengewoon onderwijs) an den Regelschulen.Seifen: Ich nenne Ihnen ein Beispiel (zeigt zwei verschiedene Arbeitsblätter, Anm. der Redaktion). Das sind Arbeitsblätter des Faches Biologie für die fünfte Klasse: Die einen Schüler beschäftigen sich mit Populationsgrößen von Tieren in einem bestimmten Raum, beschreiben z. B. anspruchsvolle Diagramme; die anderen haben ein Blatt vor sich, auf dem sie Körperteile eines Tieres benennen. Inklusion bedeutet hier: Die Kinder sitzen gemeinsam in einem Raum, beschäftigen sich zwar auch gemeinsam mit Tieren, vollziehen aber vollkommen andere geistige Prozesse.

    *Glauben Sie, dass die Kinder merken, dass sie unterschiedlich behandelt werden, sind sie, sagen wir mal, deshalb traurig? Seifen: Das weiß ich nicht. Sie werden von den Lehren auf jeden Fall wertschätzend behandelt. Ob das innerhalb der Klassengruppe so ist, kann ich nicht abschließend beurteilen. Klagen habe ich aber noch nicht gehört.

    *Was sagen Sie Eltern, die gerne möchten, dass ihr Kind mit der Freundin oder dem Freund aus der Grundschule auch zur weiterführenden Schule geht, oder aber, dass es nach wie vor am Wohnort unterrichtet werden soll, an dem es vielleicht gar keine Förderschule gibt? Seifen: Schule ist letztlich nicht dafür da, ohne Rücksicht auf andere wichtige Entscheidungskriterien, Freundschaften der Kinder zu bewahren. Man beobachtet durchaus, dass Freundschaften aus der Grundschule auseinandergehen, wenn auch die Interessen auseinandergehen. Schule ist auch eine Stätte, in der Leistung erbracht wird. Von den Erwachsenen wird es zu wenig gewürdigt, dass die Schüler richtig viel arbeiten.
    *Aber es gibt auch Fälle, die zeigen, dass Kinder mit Handicap in einer weiterführenden Schule glücklich sind. Seifen: Ja, es gibt Einzelfälle, bei denen es positive Verläufe gibt. Eines der Hauptprobleme ist auf der anderen Seite aber, das darf man nicht vergessen, dass Förderschulen geschlossen werden müssen. Eltern haben dann keine Wahl mehr. Und Know-how geht verloren. Denken Sie an die Förderschule in Stadtlohn, die schließen wird. Dort gibt es sogar eine eigene Bäckerei. Die Lehrer haben intensive Kontakte zu Betrieben in der Umgebung, konnten ihre Schüler über die Schule hinaus unterstützen.

    *Das heißt, der Weg, der schon unter Schulministerin Barbara Sommer 2008 eingeschlagen worden ist, ist falsch? Seifen: Das ist das Gegenteil von dem, was der Aufklärungs- und Humanitätsgedanke will: jeden nach seiner Leistungsfähigkeit individuell zu fördern – dafür brauchen wir aber nicht mehr die Dorfschule von früher, in der unterschiedslos alle Begabungen in einem Raum zusammensaßen. Das mehrgliedrige Schulsystem einschließlich seiner Förderschulen ist das beste Programm der „individuellen Förderung“, das es auf der Welt gibt.
    Durch Meinungsführer aus Politik und Wissenschaft wird in den Medien häufig die Ansicht vertreten, dass Ungleichheit auf keinen Fall sein darf, dass jede Trennung in Gruppen etwas Diskriminierendes sei. Diese Leute meinen dann, im Sinne des Aufklärungsgedankens zu handeln. Wahre Aufklärungshaltung bestünde aber darin, diesen Standpunkt, so etwas wie absolute Gleichheit herzustellen, immer wieder in Frage zu stellen. Ich muss überlegen, ob meine Vorstellung nach wie vor richtig ist und nicht die Wirklichkeit ad absurdum oder etwa zu neuen Ungerechtigkeiten und Unfreiheiten führt. Ich bin wahnsinnig traurig, dass das menschenfreundliche, effiziente, mehrgliedrige Schulsystem wegen dieser Gleichheitsidee so schlecht geredet wird.

    *Eltern fürchten oft, dass ihr Kind geschnitten und gemobbt wird, wenn die Nachbarn wissen, es geht „nur“ zur Förderschule. Was sagen Sie denen? Seifen: Eltern, die ihr Kind lieben – das gilt auch für die ganze Gesellschaft – respektieren es so, wie es mit seinen Begabungen daherkommt. Wir drücken Menschen ständig Etiketten auf. Ich verstehe Eltern deshalb, die nicht wollen, dass ihr Kind zur Förderschule geht. Aber wir alle sind aufgerufen, die Kinder jedweder Schulform genauso wertzuschätzen wie eines, das Abitur machen wird. Das hat etwas mit wahrer Liebe und Humanität zu tun – ich weiß, das sind große Worte.
    Ich bin überzeugt davon, dass diejenigen, die früher für Schule verantwortlich waren, mit dem mehrgliedrigen Schulsystem nicht menschenverachtend, sondern menschenfreundlich gehandelt haben

    27-01-2015 om 16:32 geschreven door Raf Feys  

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Onderwijs. Caractéristiques d’un enseignement efficace (explicite, direct, structuré, actif)

    Caractéristiques d’un enseignement efficace (explicite, direct, structuré, actif)

    Uit: Quelle pédagogie au service de la réussite de tous les élèves ? Un état de la recherche Clermont Gauthier, Steve Bissonnette et Mario Richard http://books.openedition.org/pucl/1739

    1.Woord vooraf.
    De kenmerken van een effectieve didactische aanpak die de auteurs in deze publicatie voorstellen zijn ons eigenlijk al lang bekend. We vinden het een leerrijk overzicht. We voegen er wel graag toch een bedenking aan toe. De auteurs wekken al te zeer de indruk dat het gaat om eerder recente inzichten en inzichten die vooral steunen op wetenschappelijk onderzoek. De behandelde effectieve principes zijn ook deze die ikzelf en veel collega’s op de lerarenopleiding vanaf de jaren 1970 propageerden en die men ook aantreft in onze vakdidactische publicaties over rekenen, lezen, spellen ..

    Ze komen overigens ook vrij goed overeen met de ervaringswijsheid van de leerkrachten en met de wijze waarop we zelf les kregen in het lager en secundair onderwijs in de periode 1952-1964. In andere hoofdstukken in hun publicatie wekken de auteurs al te zeer de indruk dat die principes in sterke mate afwijken van de klassieke didactische aanpak.

    Ce bref survol des recherches nous conduit à soutenir l’idée qu’un enseignement systématique, structuré, explicite, procédant du simple au complexe est nettement plus efficace qu’un enseignement par découverte pour assurer la réussite scolaire des élèves. Cependant, quand on parle de modèles « instructionnistes » on indique que, malgré leur différences (Direct Instruction, Success for All, enseignement explicite, etc.) ces différentes approches mettent de l’avant des stratégies semblables qui ressemblent, grosso modo, à ce que Rosenshine et Stevens (1986) appellent un « modèle général d’enseignement efficace ».Ces auteurs ont regroupé plusieurs éléments issus de recherches empiriques et ont identifié six balises que devraient prendre en compte les enseignants : 1-la révision; 2-la présentation, c’est-à-dire la façon de présenter les contenus; 3-la pratique guidée; 4-la correction et le feedback; 5-la pratique autonome; et enfin, 6-les révisions hebdomadaires et mensuelles.

    2.La révision
    Tout enseignant qui donne des devoirs à ses élèves mais ne les corrige pas ou n’y retravaille pas par la suite en classe s’expose à voir cette activité perdre de l’intérêt aux yeux de ses élèves. Tôt ou tard ces derniers ne les feront pas ou n’y mettront pas tous les efforts nécessaires. Cette stratégie perdra de son effet alors qu’elle aurait pu être très utile pour atteindre un niveau d’automatisation plus élevé dans l’apprentissage de certaines habiletés. De la même façon, le maître ne donne pas en devoir des contenus que les élèves ne savent pas réaliser avec suffisamment de succès. Il faut donner comme devoir des éléments de contenu que les élèves savent pour augmenter la fluidité de la pratique.

    3. Quand, dans une leçon, l’enseignant veut introduire un nouvel élément de contenu, il faut évidemment qu’il revoie les savoirs et habiletés préalables nécessaires à l’apprentissage de ces nouveaux contenus. Ce rappel des connaissances antérieures est important car il réactive la mémoire et rend disponibles les éléments de savoirs dont les élèves auront besoin pour le nouvel enseignement qui sera fait.

    4.La présentation
    L’enseignant qui présente un contenu nouveau énonce clairement les objectifs de sa leçon. Il peut présenter un bref résumé de ce qui sera vu. Il peut aussi modeler les procédures, c’est-à-dire exécuter la tâche devant les élèves et alors « penser à haute voix ».
    Il présente le contenu par petites étapes, du simple au complexe afin de bien contrôler le niveau de difficulté de la tâche. Débuter par la complexité rend la tâche d’apprendre beaucoup plus difficile pour l’élève alors que si l’enseignant contrôle la difficulté de ce qui est présenté, il s’assure d’une plus grande réussite. Par exemple, dans sa présentation d’un concept, l’enseignant fournit des exemples et aussi des contre-exemples. Le contre-exemple permet de renforcer la compréhension d’une définition. L’enseignant vérifie constamment la compréhension des élèves par des questions.
    Le maître, dans un enseignement explicite, direct ou structuré, est un maître qui questionne, qui constamment va aller chercher de l’information à propos de la compréhension de ses élèves. C’est pour cela qu’on a tort de dire parfois que, dans une telle approche, l’élève est passif. Au contraire, il est constamment sollicité et l’enseignant est toujours à l’affût de découvrir comment les élèves réagissent au contenu présenté. Plusieurs études indiquent également que l’enseignant doit éviter le plus possible les digressions. Le maître qui garde le focus et est centré sur la tâche semble favoriser davantage la réussite scolaire des élèves que celui qui fait constamment des parenthèses, du coq à l’âne et finalement perd le momentum de son activité. Les problèmes de comportement des élèves ont plus de chance d’émerger quand ils ne sont pas au travail.

    5.La pratique guidée
    La pratique guidée est une stratégie pédagogique essentielle et, malheureusement, plusieurs enseignants n’y accordent généralement pas suffisamment de temps. Une fois qu’il a présenté la tâche à réaliser, une fois qu’il a modelé ce qu’il y avait à faire devant les élèves, l’enseignant les met au travail. À ce moment-là, plutôt que de demeurer à son bureau, il circule à travers les allées et va voir comment les élèves réagissent à la tâche demandée, et ce, afin de saisir de quelle façon le message envoyé a été compris. Cette étape est favorisée par le travail d’équipe qui permet aux élèves de vérifier leur compréhension en échangeant des idées entre eux. Trop souvent, on pense que ce qu’on a dit a été retenu tel qu’énoncé.
    Or, il y a un monde de différence entre ce que l’enseignant présente et ce que les élèves retiennent. C’est en circulant dans les allées lors de l’étape de la pratique guidée que l’enseignant va pouvoir déceler le niveau de compréhension des élèves, la quantité et le type d’erreurs qu’ils font, si l’incompréhension est limitée à quelques élèves ou généralisée à la moitié de la classe. Dans ce cas, il arrête tout et reprend la leçon pour éviter que l’erreur s’incruste dans la tête des élèves. Une erreur cristallisée demande beaucoup plus de temps avant d’être corrigée. Alors il vaut mieux détecter les erreurs le plus tôt possible afin de sauver du temps précieux.

    6.Outre le fait d’interroger fréquemment les élèves, il est important également de leur donner des clés de compréhension (procedural prompts).
    L’ouvrage de Pressley et Woloshyn (1995) intitulé Cognitive strategies instruction that really improves children’s academic performance présente une série de stratégies validées par la recherche pour aider les élèves à réaliser des tâches demandées.

    Par exemple, pour aider les élèves à comparer telle chose à telle autre, l’enseignant leur présente une feuille pour faciliter la comparaison : deux colonnes, des paramètres de comparaison. Ce genre de clés ou procedural prompts guide l’élève et rend plus aisée sa compréhension et sa réalisation de la tâche à exécuter. À l’étape de la pratique guidée, il faut susciter des réponses de tous les élèves et continuer la pratique jusqu’à l’obtention d’un haut taux de succès (80 %). Au besoin, donner des explications additionnelles et poursuivre jusqu’à l’atteinte de la fluidité.

    7.La rétroaction
    L’importance de la rétroaction est reconnue depuis longtemps. L’enseignant peut donner de la rétroaction au fur et à mesure quand les réponses sont correctes mais encore hésitantes. Il peut donner une rétroaction plus soutenue, et même ré-enseigner quand les réponses des élèves sont erronées. Il peut aussi fournir aux élèves des listes d’auto-vérification pour qu’ils assurent par eux-mêmes le suivi de leurs apprentissages.
    Les recherches parlent aussi d’un usage modéré des renforcements au sens où vient un moment où trop renforcer, trop féliciter, n’a plus d’effet et peut même engendrer des effets négatifs. Les effets du renforcement peuvent se distribuer comme sur une courbe en U inversé sur laquelle il y a au départ une amélioration de la performance puis ensuite un déclin.

    8.La pratique autonome
    À un moment donné, il faut que les élèves soient capables de faire de manière autonome. Il est donc important que les élèves s’exercent suffisamment pour arriver à un niveau assez important de réussite. L’enseignant, lors de la pratique autonome, observe constamment la performance des élèves pour être bien certain que des erreurs ne soient pas intériorisées et généralisées. Il faut donc donner au début un aperçu de la tâche à exécuter et du soutien. Ensuite les élèves pratiquent (quand cela est pertinent) jusqu’à l’automatisation, soit un taux de 95 % de réussite. L’enseignant supervise la pratique autonome et souligne que le travail sera corrigé. Il utilise également des routines pour soutenir les étudiants plus lents.

    9.Les révisions hebdomadaires et mensuelles
    Il est important de réviser fréquemment ce qui a été enseigné, de ré-enseigner ce qui n’a pas été maîtrisé. La question du transfert est discutée abondamment depuis quelques années. Il est important de retenir qu’il n’y a de transfert possible que si les connaissances ont été acquises et retenues. Acquises signifie bien comprises et retenues veut dire qu’elles ont été suffisamment pratiquées pour être prêtes à être mobilisées lorsque requises. La révision systématique de ce qui a été enseigné, des tests fréquents, le ré-enseignement au besoin de ce qui n’est pas maîtrisé dans les tests faciliteront tant l’acquisition que la rétention et rendront possible le transfert.

    Conclusions

    Nous ne sommes pas partisans d’une approche pédagogique en particulier. Quelle que soit la nature de ce qui est proposé, ce qui nous intéresse est d’examiner si une base de recherche existe et si les effets de ces approches ont été mesurés. Nous considérons, d’après les nombreuses études consultées, qu’un enseignement structuré présente plus de potentiel qu’un enseignement par découverte comme approche pédagogique de base pour assurer tant la réussite des élèves d’une classe que celle de toute une école, et ce, particulièrement pour les milieux défavorisés. C’est en cela que la recherche en enseignement peut aider à rendre l’école plus démocratique.

    Pourtant, et paradoxalement, les réformes éducatives actuelles proposent plutôt un enseignement par découverte. Par exemple, au Québec, au début de la réforme, les promoteurs disaient qu’il fallait passer du paradigme de l’enseignement au paradigme de l’apprentissage comme si on avait fait une percée pédagogique majeure. Comment peut-on justifier des virages pédagogiques radicaux avec si peu de preuves empiriques ? Comment peut-on prétendre faire réussir le plus grand nombre alors que l’on sait déjà que bon nombre d’élèves, et sans doute plus qu’avant, seront confrontés à l’échec ?

    Il faut sans doute chercher les raisons de ces choix dans la prise de contrôle de nos systèmes éducatifs par la rectitude pédagogique d’un establishment pédagogique initié par des politiciens en quête de reconnaissance, dominé par des fonctionnaires attirés par les modes et alimentés par des universitaires en sciences de l’éducation qui se nourrissent davantage d’essais que de recherches rigoureuses.

    Bijlage: Faiblesses d’un enseignement par découverte

    L’enseignement par découverte qui prend souvent la forme de projet est une idée intéressante animée d’une bonne intention. Pourtant, une stratégie de découverte mise de l’avant trop tôt, ou encore trop rapidement, surtout quand l’élève n’a pas encore acquis ni retenu suffisamment les éléments de savoir, risque de devenir un échec pédagogique important.

    Dans un enseignement par découverte, on ne s’assure pas toujours suffisamment de la compréhension et de la maîtrise des savoirs préalables. La plupart du temps, dans une pédagogie par découverte, le maître ne débute pas selon une séquence du simple au complexe, mais plutôt immédiatement à partir de tâches complexes.
    Étant donné que dans les projets il n’y a pas de contrôle du niveau de difficulté de la tâche, les élèves ne réussiront pas nécessairement à faire ce que l’enseignant voulait qu’ils fassent. L’intérêt du constructivisme dans la pratique guidée a été d’aller chercher le niveau de compréhension des élèves, de le questionner beaucoup. Cela est une contribution majeure à la compréhension du phénomène de l’apprentissage. Cependant, on ne met pas suffisamment l’accent sur l’importance de la pratique dans les approches par découverte.

    Il y a une tendance à l’éparpillement et au survol même si les élèves aiment faire des projets. Pourtant le critère de réussite ne doit pas être d’abord le plaisir des élèves mais plutôt s’ils apprennent ce qu’ils doivent apprendre. Que les élèves aient du plaisir est un effet latéral positif, mais cela ne peut constituer la mission première de l’école.

    Plusieurs ont l’impression, voire des croyances fortes et bien ancrées, que l’enseignement par découverte et la pédagogie de projets sont les bonnes stratégies pour faire apprendre les élèves. Ils ne peuvent remettre en question cette idée que peut-être ces dispositifs ne sont pas aussi efficaces qu’ils le pensent ni associés à un meilleur apprentissage des élèves. Lorsqu’il y a des échecs, plutôt que de remettre en question la stratégie déployée, on invoquera le ratio maître-élèves trop élevé, le manque de matériel ou de temps et on rejettera souvent le


    27-01-2015 om 14:09 geschreven door Raf Feys  

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Strijd tegen ‘hostility towards knowledge’ in Engeland & nieuwe eindtermen/leerplannen

    Strijd tegen ‘hostility towards knowledge’ in Engeland & nieuwe eindtermen/leerplannen in Vlaanderen

    Naar verluidt werkt men momenteel aan nieuwe eindtermen en leerplannen. We vragen ons af welke richting die zullen uitgaan.  In deze context  citeren we een aantal passages uit een toespraak  van de Engelse onderwijsminister Nick Gibb op OESO-conferentie 22 januari: Reforming qualifications and the curriculum to better prepare pupils for life after school and Schools  ...  Het gaat vooral  om de strijd tegen de ‘ hostility towards knowledge’.

    Het zijn uitspraken die ons interesseren in het perspectief van de opstelling van nieuwe eindtermen en leerplannen Met de O-ZON-campagne van Onderwijskrant  bonden we begin 2007 ook de strijd aan tegen ‘hostility towards knowledge’ , de ‘vijandigheid ten aanzien van kennis’ die o.a. tot uiting kwam in de eindtermenoperatie van de jaren negentig en in een aantal erbij aansluitende leerplannen. Onze O-ZON-campagne  kon op een massale instemming rekenen vanwege leerkrachten en docenten. De ontkenning kwam vooral uit de hoek van de beleidsmakers en de onderwijskoepels. Academic curriculum versus hostillity tegen knowledge

    1. ‘Strijd tegen vijandigheid ten aanzien van kennis’: nieuwe curricula

    Perhaps the part of our plan (=hervormingsplan van regering) which has drawn most from best practice overseas has been our programme of reforms to the curriculum.  As we came into government in 2010, Tim Oates, the curriculum expert from Cambridge Assessment, produced a paper entitled ‘Could Do Better’. It provided an extensive survey of the challenges we faced. Tim found that our curriculum lacked clarification, teachers were overloaded, and assessment practices were overbearing. The demands of the national curriculum were so vague that it had become impossible to decipher what children should actually be learning.
    For too long, our school curriculum lacked the basic essentials that a good education affords. The 2007 secondary curriculum, produced 3 years before we came into office, featured 29 bullet points on the curriculum aims which barely touched upon what pupils should be doing or learning. … There was a marked hostility towards knowledge, and an obsession with so-called transferable skills.

    The 2 schools of thought - progressivism as opposed to a rigorous focus on knowledge - are represented clearly by Michael Fullan and Daisy Christodoulou.In Fullan’s ‘A Rich Seam,’ he suggests that education for the 21st century should be led by curiosity and ‘new system economies.’ But his  thesis, in my view, is a wolf in sheep’s clothing. Although it is not entirely clear, I think he is describing a new version of the disastrous ‘child-centred’ approach of yesterday.
    I think Christodoulou captures the position we should all subscribe to: ‘To be an active citizen’ she says ‘of a democratic society you have to know about history, the world, sciences, the arts. You have to know about things that most people do not bring to the classroom and which they cannot pick up through experience.’  (Dat was ook de basisstelling in het manifest van O-ZON begin 2007).

    The work of academics such as ED Hirsch and cognitive psychologist Daniel Willingham has shown that teaching core knowledge must be central to any effective curriculum. Previous attempts to teach skills without knowledge, or to develop proficiency without practice, were always doomed to failure. Listening to this evidence, we recognised that a new national curriculum was essential in order to restore rigour and to drive up standards in our schools.

    And in developing this new, academic, knowledge-based curriculum, we looked overseas to find the best evidence of what works. The Massachusetts Miracle, as it has come to be known, has demonstrated that a rich knowledge content improves educational achievement and it improves social mobility. The Common Core State Standards in Massachusetts have helped to place their teenagers above those of other States’ in the US, and equal to those in South Korea, Hong Kong, and other high performing jurisdictions. Since the early 2000s, the Florida State Literacy Plan has sought to improve reading through phonics and phonemic awareness. They also increased accountability by publicly grading state schools. Between 1998 and 2013, Florida’s fourth-grade reading and math scores went from below the national average to above it.
    Since Shanghai entered PISA for the first time with the 2009 study, they have consistently outperformed every other system in reading, maths and science. Their maths performance is particularly impressive, with 15-year-olds outperforming our own by an average of 3 years.

    In September last year, we flew 71 British teachers to Shanghai to see for themselves the quality of Chinese primary-level maths lessons. They saw first-hand the 35-minute, whole-class lessons that place high expectations on every child to follow and learn the content, while providing quick catch up sessions for those who struggle.And in November last year, 29 Shanghai teachers made the trip to England, to demonstrate how they teach maths to young children. The large majority of Shanghai pupils progress through the curriculum content at the same pace. Differentiation is achieved by emphasising deeper knowledge and through individual support and intervention. The trend for differentiation in England , by contrast, encourages classrooms being divided into groups, with each group taught a separate curriculum.
    Another country in the East - Singapore - has been the inspiration behind our call for UK publishers to produce a higher standard of textbook. TALIS data shows that English teachers are 10 times more likely to feel they are lacking good resources than teachers in Singapore where good textbooks - which provide a systematic approach to building knowledge - are a standard fixture both in the class and at home.
    Our recently established maths hubs are implementing the mastery approach of East Asian countries and are also now trialling Singapore-style textbooks. Inspire Maths, published by Oxford University Press (OUP) and Maths No Problem, are now being used in some primary schools to provide structure and support to the new national curriculum. We aren’t the only ones influenced by East Asia. Tennessee has looked to Shanghai to inform its Teacher Peer Excellence Group project.

    ‘Progress in the UK’

    I am pleased to say that, while we have been keen scholars of international education methods, we can happily share some of our great successes too. As I have already mentioned, phonics teaching is having a positive impact on literacy.74% of state school pupils passed the phonics check last year, compared with just 58% in 2012.

    Tom Bennett and his excellent ResearchED conferences are packed with teachers demanding to know ‘what is the evidence’ behind teaching methods. More students are studying core academic subjects: A level maths is now the number one choice at A level, and we have seen an increase in exam entries for further maths and all the science subjects.And crucially, we have more girls taking science and maths subjects compared with 2010: 1,000 more taking physics A level, 2,000 more studying maths A level, and 13,000 more girls are taking physics GCSE than in 2010. This will provide children with the knowledge and skills required for rewarding careers which are currently deprived of qualified candidates.

    2 .Accountability

    Since 2010, over 4000 schools have become academies and 255 free schools have opened, all benefiting from additional freedoms but also held to account through an improved framework. England has, for some time, had a relatively effective accountability framework. Key stage 2 assessments and GCSEs are well embedded in our education system. Despite some problems - particularly the inexorable grade inflation. It has proved valuable to have broad and consistent measures with which to measure pupil attainment and school performance.
    But we recognised that we could go further. As Poland has demonstrated in their far-reaching and successful reforms, stronger accountability leads to better results for pupils. So our new key stage 2 assessments, coming into force 2016, will reflect the more challenging national curriculum and will report a precise scaled score at the end of the key stage rather than so called levels.We are also reforming GCSEs, making them more rigorous and ensuring they teach the core knowledge demanded by employers, and by further and higher education. And the new Progress 8 performance measures will shift the focus from students on the C/D borderline, to supporting students of all abilities.

    27-01-2015 om 10:22 geschreven door Raf Feys  

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    26-01-2015
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Onderwijs.Finland:haaks op radicale inclusie en M-decreet
    Recent discussion on inclusion in Finland: haaks op radicale inclusie en M-decreet

    *Finland heeft de optie voor radicale inclusie zoals in VN-gedrag nooit onderschreven.
    *Probleemleerlingen veelal in aparte klassen
    *Veel aandacht en geld ...voor remediëring

    Citaat: Currently, Finland is a black sheep in the international movement on inclusive education. The legitimacy of separate special education is strong and unquestioned. Since the mainstream in most other countries is towards inclusive education, the situation of Finnish school authorities is not always comfortable. There is a continuous threat of a legitimacy crisis in special education. Until now the threat has been successfully handled first through the means of ignoring the international discussions, statements and policies, and lately by changing the meaning of the concept of inclusion. Instead of inclusion meaning desegregation it is increasingly defined by educational authorities to mean some kind of good teaching in general (Halinen & Järvinen, 2008; Special Education Committee, 2007).

    Traditional Finnish sets of values combined with strong teacher professionalism together explain the high legitimacy of segregated special education in Finnish society. The increasing numbers of students in special education are interpreted by representatives of the government as a healthy answer to increasing pathological conditions of children. The international discussion on inclusion (UN, 1993; Unesco, 1994) was first met in Finland by silence, which continued for several years (e.g. Blom, et al., 1996). At the political level, inclusion is not raised as a goal to be sought. Instead, it is understood as a state that has already been achieved, because all that is possible has already been done. The main focus of special education policy is localized in the neoliberal philosophy of “early intervention”, where problems are found in the pathological conditions of individual children (Plan for Education and Research 2007-2011 by the Ministry of Education). This focus is evident also in the Special Education Strategy report of the Special Education Committee of the Ministry of Education (2007).

    Furthermore, none of the political parties have raised the issue of inclusive education, outside of the small left wing party, The Left Alliance.
    Integration, or inclusion, is commonly conceived of as an already achieved and established state of affairs. Since the rehabilitation committee of 1966, the official documents of the National Board of Education have repeatedly stated that integration is a primary choice which, however, is not always possible to achieve. What is “possible” depends on the abilities of the person himself, and these limits are decided by teachers. A popular scapegoat for the lack of integration is found in deficits in teacher education (Special Education Committee, 2007). According to this explanation integration is not possible because teachers have not acquired the necessary skills in their education. Antagonists of this explanation underline that current teacher education is fully adequate in this respect and gives readiness for all teachers to include students with disabilities.

    The academic world of special education has traditionally taken a conservative stance towards inclusion. Popular arguments for special education have stressed that “place is not important” or “more research is needed” before inclusion can be activated (Blom et al, 1996). Plausible popular legitimisation of special classes has been created through circular arguments: a child is, of course, in need of special education if she has special educational needs.
    Very recently there has been observable some change in the discussion. First, some large disability organizations, e.g. the Parents’ Association for People with Intellectual Disabilities, The National Council on Disability, and the Finnish Association on People with Physical Disabilities have presented critical statements, not heard previously, on current policy which favours increased placement of students in special classes. These organizations have begun to refer to international goal statements on inclusive education, like the Salamanca statement. Second, the academic field of special education has begun to experience some polarization in the question of inclusion, and more positive sounds are being heard in favour of inclusion. This argument is observed, for example, in a recent addition on special education of the Finnish educational journal “Kasvatus” (2/2009). Additionally, a current textbook written by leading special education professors (2009) refers to inclusive education in a cautiously positive tone of voice, even if traditional special education is in no way criticized. It also gives space to the presentation of the international inclusion movement and international statements.

    The above mentioned events are weak signals which probably foreshadow the slow change of societal values underway in the direction of greater tolerance towards people with disabilities. More radical changes could be expected from a different direction. The preparation of new legislation concerning the state funding of local municipalities is currently taking place. Preliminary, unofficial information on the new principles concerning state support give some promise for the demolition of the present individual-based funding model of special education in favour of a more global solution. If the change happens it, in all probability, will mean a free fall in the number of special class placements. Inclusive development may thus become materialized as an unintended consequence of a bureaucratic funding reform.

    Currently, Finland is a black sheep in the international movement on inclusive education. The legitimacy of separate special education is strong and unquestioned. Since the mainstream in most other countries is towards inclusive education, the situation of Finnish school authorities is not always comfortable. There is a continuous threat of a legitimacy crisis in special education. Until now the threat has been successfully handled first through the means of ignoring the international discussions, statements and policies, and lately by changing the meaning of the concept of inclusion. Instead of inclusion meaning desegregation it is increasingly defined by educational authorities to mean some kind of good teaching in general (Halinen & Järvinen, 2008; Special Education Committee, 2007).
    Meer weergeven

    26-01-2015 om 12:06 geschreven door Raf Feys  

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    Tags:inclusief onderwijs, M-decreet
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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.21st Century Skills (sinds 1900!): An Old Familiar Song
    21st Century Skills (sinds 1900!): An Old Familiar Song - Blog Diane Ravitch, Amerikaanse prof. em. Historische pedagogiek

    The latest fad to sweep the wonderful world of pedagogy is called 21st Century Skills. States are now adding them to their standards, with the expectation that students will learn the skills needed for the 21st century. In the land of American pedagogy, innovation is freque...ntly confused with progress, and whatever is thought to be new is always embraced more readily than what is known to be true. Thus, pedagogues, policymakers, thought leaders, facilitators, and elected officials are rushing to get aboard the 21st century skills express train, lest they appear to be old-fashioned or traditional, these terms being the worst sort of opprobrium that can be hurled at any educator.

    A few days ago, I received an email from Professor John Richard Schrock, who is a professor of biology and director of biology education for Emporia State University in Kansas. He wrote as follows: In 23 years of turning out over 200 strong biology teachers in Kansas, I have not faced a challenge as serious as this last fall. A cabal of Superintendents, independent of the State Board of Education, in at least eight mid-sized KS school districts have adopted a form of "21st Century Learning" that is directing veteran science teachers to shut up and assign students to "independent learning." The teachers are not to speak for more than a few minutes each class, and then only to give directions. Students are to work on projects to learn all science concepts on their own…The rationale for these superintendents' actions appears to be the "21st Century Learning" movement. That national plan has been endorsed by our State Board of Education (KSBE), although they are not enthusiastic about this specific interpretation, which they cannot prevent. The presentation at the KSBE was explicit in stating that "it is no longer important what bits of information a student knows, but only that students be able to locate information" in the new 21st Century model...

    I am a historian of education. I have often written about the educational enthusiasms and fads of the past century. One of my books, titled Left Back, tells the story of the rise and fall of one fad after another across the twentieth century. Unfortunately the field of pedagogy is subject to frequent bouts of infatuation with fads and of lemming-like behavior in adopting the latest fad as holy writ.
    After examining the materials associated with P21, I concluded, to quote the noted philosopher Yogi Berra, that "it's like déjà vu all over again." There is nothing new in the proposals of the 21st century skills movement. The same ideas were iterated and reiterated by pedagogues across the twentieth century. Their call for 20th century skills sounds identical to the current effort to promote 21st century skills. If there was one cause that animated the schools of education in the 20th century, it was the search for the ultimate breakthrough that would finally loosen the shackles of subject matter and content.
    For decade after decade, pedagogical leaders called upon the schools to free themselves from tradition and subject matter. Ellwood P. Cubberley, dean of the education school at Stanford, warned that it was dangerous for society to educate boys-and even girls-without reference to vocational ends. Whatever they learned, he insisted, should be relevant to their future lives and work. He thought it foolish to saturate them with "a mass of knowledge that can have little application for the lives which most of them must inevitably lead." They were sure to become disappointed and discontented, and who knew where all this discontent might lead? Cubberley called on his fellow educators to abandon their antiquated academic ideals and instead to adapt education to the real life and real needs of their students. This was in 1911.

    The federal government issued a major report on the education of bl ack students in 1916. Its author, Thomas Jesse Jones, scoffed at academic education, which lacked relevance to the lives of these students and was certainly not adapted to their needs. Jones wanted black children to "learn to do by doing," which was considered to be the modern, scientific approach to education. It was not knowledge of the printed page that black students needed, wrote Mr. Jones, but "knowledge of gardening, small farming, and the simple industries required in farming communities." Jones admired schools that were teaching black students how to sew, cook, garden, milk cows, lay bricks, harvest crops, and raise poultry. This clarion call was sounded as America was changing from a rural to an urban nation.

    Although there were many similar efforts to eliminate the academic curriculum and replace it with real-world interactions, none came as close to the ideals of 21st century learning skills as William Heard Kilpatrick's celebrated Project Method. Kilpatrick, a fabled Teachers College professor, took the educational world by storm in 1918 with his proposal for the Project Method. Instead of a sequential curriculum laid out in advance, Kilpatrick urged that boys and girls engage in hands-on projects of their own choosing. As Kilpatrick envisioned it, the Project was "whole-hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment." Kilpatrick said that the Project shaped character and personality. It required activity, not docility. It awakened student motivation. Ideally the Project would be done collaboratively by a group.

    Another forerunner to P21 was the activity movement of the 1920s and 1930s. As in the Project Method, students were encouraged to engage in activities and projects built on their interests. Studies were interdisciplinary, and academic subjects were called upon only when needed to solve a problem. Students built, measured, and figured things out, while solving real-life problems, like how to build a playhouse or a pet park or a puppet theater. Decision-making, critical thinking, cooperative group learning: it was an integral part of the activity movement.

    Something similar happened in many high schools in the 1930s, where many avant-garde school districts replaced courses like science and history with interdisciplinary courses, which they called the "core curriculum" or "social living." Some districts merged several disciplines-such as English, social studies and science- into a single course, which was focused not on subject matter but on students' life experiences. In a typical class, students studied their own homes, made maps and scale drawings, and analyzed such questions as the cost of maintaining the home, the cost of fuel, light and power, and how to prepare nutritious meals.
    But there were occasional parent protests. In Roslyn, New York, parents were incensed because their children couldn't read but spent an entire day baking nut bread. The Roslyn superintendent assured them that baking nut bread was an excellent way to learn mathematics.

    One progressive educator in the 1930s looked forward to the day when students would learn everything first-hand; when there were no more schools; when students were learning everything they needed to know in fields, farms, factories, and workplaces. This was an early version of the deschooling movement, which got a fair amount of publicity in the 1960s. Again the goal was to make all schooling tactile, problem-based, and experiential.

    Then in the 1950s came the Life Adjustment Movement, yet another stab at getting rid of subject matter and teaching students to prepare for real life. And in the 1980s, there was Outcome Based Education, which sought to make schooling relevant, hands-on, and attuned to the real interests and needs of young people.
    In the early 1990s came SCANS-the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills-which recommended exactly the kinds of functional skill s that are now called 21st Century skills. These documents were produced by a commission for the Secretary of Labor. I recall hearing the director of SCANS say that students didn't need to know anything about the Civil War or how to write a book report; these were obsolete kinds of skills and knowledge.

    When the SCANS recommendations appeared in 1991, I was an Assistant Secretary at the US Department of Education and I discussed them with David Kearns, the Deputy Secretary who had been CEO of Xerox. I said, "David, the SCANS report says that young people don't need to know how to write a book report, they need to know how to write advertising jingles." He replied, "That's ridiculous. You can't write advertising jingles if you don't know how to write a book report."

    I won't get into the reasons why none of these initiatives survived. They did have their impact, however. They left American education with a deeply ingrained suspicion of academic studies and subject matter. "It's academic" came to mean "it's purely theoretical and unreal." For the past century, our schools of education have obsessed over critical thinking skills, projects, cooperative learning, experiential learning, and so on. But they have paid precious little attention to the disciplinary knowledge that young people need to make sense of the world.

    This deeply ingrained suspicion - hostility, even - towards subject matter is the single most significant reason for the failure of the standards movement in American education over the past generation. We should have been educating future teachers to study their subject or subjects in depth. We should have paid attention to what Lee Shulman, educational psychologist and professor emeritus at Stanford, calls "pedagogical content knowledge." We should have been helping teachers determine ways to light up young minds and to generate excitement about historical imagination or scientific discovery. Instead, we have numbed the brains of future teachers with endless blather about process and abstract thinking skills. We have taught them about graphic organizers and Venn diagrams and accountable talk, data-based decision-making, rubrics, and leveled libraries, but we have ignored what matters most. We have neglected to teach them that one cannot think critically unless one has quite a lot of knowledge to think about. One thinks critically by comparing and contrasting and synthesizing what one has learned.

    One must know a great deal before she or he can begin to reflect on its meaning and look for alternative explanations. The problem with skills-driven approaches to learning is that there are so many things we need to know that cannot be learned by hand-on experiences. The educated person learns not only from his or her own experience, but from the hard-earned experience of others. We do not restart the world anew in each generation. We stand on the shoulders of those who have gone before us. What matters most in the use of our brains is our capacity to make generalizations, to see beyond our own immediate experience. The intelligent person, the one who truly is a practitioner of critical thinking, has the learned capacity to understand the lessons of history, to engage in the adventures of literature, to grasp the inner logic of science and mathematics, and to realize the meaning of philosophical debates by studying them. Through literature, for example, we have the opportunity to see the world through the eyes of another person, to walk in their shoes, to experience life as it was lived in another century and another culture, to live vicariously beyond the bounds of our own time and family and place. What a gift! How sad to refuse it!

    Until we teach our teachers and our students to love knowledge and to love learning, we cannot expect them to use their minds well

    26-01-2015 om 12:03 geschreven door Raf Feys  

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    Tags:21st Century Skills , Ravitch
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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Kritiek op constructivistisch en 'aards' wiskunde-onderwijs van het Freudenthal-Instituut
    Kritiek op constructivistisch en context-gebonden reken- en wiskunde-onderwijs van Nederlandse Freudenthal-Instituut laait weer op (zie bijlage)

    Met Onderwijskrant formuleerden we al in de late jaren tachtig veel kritiek op de constructivi...stische en contextgebonden ('realistische') aanpak van het Freudenthal-Instituut.

    Op het groot wiskunde-colloquim van 1983 (Stichting Lod. de Raet) was Freudenthal nog een medestander van Raf Feys in de strijd tegen de formalistische en hemelse 'moderne wiskunde'. Maar jammer genoeg merkten we een paar jaar later dat Freudenthal en Co het extreem van de 'hemelse' en formalistische wiskunde wilden vervangen door het andere extreem: de 'aardse' (contextgebonden) en contructivistische wiskunde - waarbij het respect voor de wiskunde als cultuurvak en discipline verloren ging. We publiceerden vanaf 1987 veel kritische bijdragen over de Freudenthal-wiskunde, ook in Nederlandse tijdschrijften. Pas veel jaren later kregen we hierbij steun vanuit Nederland.

    We deden in de jaren negentig ons uiterste best om de Freudenthal-aanpak (die in Vlaanderen gepropageerd werd vanuit universitaire kringen en door de leerplanvoorzitter secundair onderwijs) buiten het leerplan van het (katholiek) lager onderwijs te houden. Met succes - van de eerste tekstversie waarin volop de Freudenthal-aanpak gepropageerd werd, bleef praktisch niets over. De termen 'constructivistisch en realistisch komen ook nergens voor en in het korte hoofdstukje over de methodiek pleit(t)en we voor een gevarieerde aanpak naargelang van de fase in het leerproces en de specifieke leerinhoud. In de leerplannen wiskunde secundair onderwijs voor de eerste graad drong de Freudenthaalse aanpak jammer genoeg al te sterk door. Met de gevolgen vandien: niveaudaling e.d. Momenteel wordt naar verluidt gewerkt aan nieuwe eindtermen/leerplannen wiskunde. We zijn benieuwd.

    Citaat uit BON-bijdrage: "Leerlingen worden in onvoldoende mate geoefend in het simpelweg internaliseren en automatiseren van de verschillende rekenvaardigheden doordat ze te zeer met contextsommen worden opgezadeld die beginnen met het lees- en begripsvermogen van de geschetste context. Daardoor schiet de ontwikkeling van hun rekenvaardigheid tekort, waardoor natuurlijk ook de toepassing ervan in contextsommen te wensen overlaat. Leerlingen verliezen hun houvast en zien door de bomen het bos niet meer. Ironisch genoeg worden vooral ook de kinderen met een lagere talige ontwikkeling en lagere rekenintelligentie hiervan de dupe. Ook hun ouders weten niet meer goed hoe ze hun kind moeten voorbereiden op dergelijke toetsen.Nu is het op zichzelf prima dat leerlingen er op worden voorbereid hun rekenvaardigheid in de concrete praktijk toe te passen. Maar wil je rekenen in de praktijk toe kunnen passen, moet je eerst wel kunnen rekenen; en precies daar wringt de schoen."
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    26-01-2015 om 12:00 geschreven door Raf Feys  

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    Tags:constructivistisch wiskunde-onderwijs, Freudenthal-Instituut, wiskunde
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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Vlaanderen scoort hoog volgens CBS-onderzoek over efficiëntie van het onderwijs
    Merkwaardig Nederlands CBS-onderzoek over efficiëntie van het onderwijs.

    De efficiëntiescore is bepaald door het gemiddelde van de input- en outputclassificatie te nemen. Hierbij geldt dat de efficiëntie hoog is als er weinig financiële middelen ingezet zijn en de resultaten bij PISA-2012 hoog zijn. Volgens die studie behaalt België een mooie topscore, een 5de plaat op 32 deelnemende landen.... . Indien een aparte score voor Vlaanderen berekend zou worden, dan zou Vlaanderen nog een stuk beter presteren.

    De bijzonder zwakke score voor de Scandinavische landen Zweden, Noorwegen en Denemarken is een gevolg van hun bijzonder zwakke score voor PISA-2012. Deze landen investeren wel veel geld in het onderwijs, maar ze presteren vrij laag voor PISA. Is het toeval dat het drie landen zijn waar al lange tijd comprehensief en inclusief onderwijs wordt gepropageerd?

    Landen naar efficiëntiescore qua onderwijs
    Plaats land & Efficiëntie-score

    1. Korea 1,1
    2. Japan 0,8
    3. Duitsland 0,7
    4. Estland 0,7
    5. België 0,6
    6. Tsjechië 0,6
    7. Canada 0,5
    8. Polen 0,4
    9. Zwitserland 0,4
    10. Nederland 0,4
    11. Slowakije 0,3
    12. Hongarije 0,3
    13. Finland 0,3
    14. Turkije 0,1
    15. Oostenrijk 0,0
    16. Frankrijk 0,0
    17. Italië 0,0
    18. Australië −0­,1
    19. Portugal −0­,2
    20. Luxemburg −0­,2
    21. Israël −0­,2
    22. Spanje −0­,2
    23. Ierland −0­,3
    24. Slovenië −0­,3
    25. Nieuw Zeeland −0­,3
    26. Denemarken −0­,3
    27. Zweden −0­,4
    28. Verenigde Staten −0­,4
    29. Noorwegen −0­,7
    30. IJsland −0­,7
    31. Verenigd Koninkrijk −0­,9
    32. Chili −0­,9
    33. Mexico −1­,

    26-01-2015 om 11:58 geschreven door Raf Feys  

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Over belang van basiskennis - Blog David Didau
    Over belang van basiskennis  -Blog David Didau

    For the record, here is what I believe:

    1.Knowledge is transformational. You can’t think about something you don’t know. Once you know a thing it becomes possible to think about it. The thinking, in whatever fo...rm it takes, is a ‘skill’.
    2.Not all knowledge is equal. Some propositional knowledge has more power than other propositional knowledge.


    3.Procedural knowledge (knowledge of how to do things, or ‘skills’) is also important but is meaningless without propositional knowledge to apply it to.
    4.Teaching procedural knowledge instead of, or separately from, propositional knowledge is of very limited use because most procedural knowledge only applies to specific domains. Whilst it may well be true that drama is great for developing resilience in drama, it not much use for developing resilience (or critical thinking) in, say, maths.

    5.There are grey areas. Learning is wonderfully complex and I certainly don’t know everything (or even all that much) but I do absolutely believe that knowledge must come before application
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    26-01-2015 om 11:55 geschreven door Raf Feys  

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    Tags:basiskennis, O-ZON
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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Onderwijs. Over het belang van basiskennis (David Didau)
    Over belang van basiskennis

     Abstract uit bijdrage van David Didau
    1.Knowledge is transformational. You can’t think about something you don’t know. Once you know a thing it becomes possible to think about it. The thinking, in whatever fo...rm it takes, is a ‘skill’.
    2.Not all knowledge is equal. Some propositional knowledge has more power than other propositional knowledge.


    3.Procedural knowledge (knowledge of how to do things, or ‘skills’) is also important but is meaningless without propositional knowledge to apply it to.
    4.Teaching procedural knowledge instead of, or separately from, propositional knowledge is of very limited use because most procedural knowledge only applies to specific domains. Whilst it may well be true that drama is great for developing resilience in drama, it not much use for developing resilience (or critical thinking) in, say, maths.

    5.There are grey areas. Learning is wonderfully complex and I certainly don’t know everything (or even all that much) but I do absolutely believe that knowledge must come before application
    Meer weergeven

    26-01-2015 om 11:13 geschreven door Raf Feys  

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    Tags:kennisdebat, basiskennis, Divid Didau, O-ZON
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